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05: Think Tanks in Österreich

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Hauptschule
Breakout / Working Group
in englischer Sprache

Think Tanks sind aus der heutigen politischen Diskussion kaum wegzudenken und bestimmen auf unterschiedlichste Weise die politische Agenda, indem sie diese durch wissenschaftliche Expertise beeinflussen. Die Frage nach der Rolle, die Think Tanks in der Gesellschaft spielen und nach der demokratischen Legitimation von Expertenurteilen, ist angesichts dieser Entwicklung virulent. Denn auch Lobbyisten und Wirtschaftsunternehmen suchen seit längerem die gesellschaftliche Diskussion durch eigene Expertisen und Think Tanks mit zu gestalten. Wird Think Tank-Arbeit zum neuen Werkzeug des wirtschaftsnahen Lobbyismus, welcher Verantwortung und welchen Objektivitätskriterien unterliegt die wissenschaftliche Beratung? Welche Möglichkeiten haben Think Tanks in Österreich, die politische Diskussion zu beeinflussen?

Vortragende

Chairman, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, Dublin; Member, Austrian Council for Research and Technology Development, Vienna Abstract
Issues surrounding the use and the acquisition of scientific advice to policy makers are discussed more openly and more frequently in most European countries today. Think Tanks seen by some as respectable pressure groups are often credited with having an inordinate influence in the policy making process. When dealing with science policy we have to identify and understand the political frontiers, the issues that concern the majority of people in a demographic society, as any new initiative connected with these frontiers will be given political priority. Most governments over the last ten years have considered unemployment; new factors relating to competitiveness and other economic reforms to be of primary importance. Are the science policies today within or outside these boundaries? The more recent issue of the information society is to achieve a relationship between science and technology. Can the man in the street see the link with the appropriation of information? Yes, maybe through biotechnology eg food safety, stem cell research etc subjects that are not uncommon in public or private(think tank) debates. What is the level of influence of these advisory bodies in European countries? In the United States of America 'think tanks' have become an integral feature of the political landscape especially when they influence the outcome of policies already on the political agenda. In Europe the UK is the most prolific user of the think tank as a mode for debate.
However when acting as a science adviser the ideological perspective is different. The science adviser today is influenced by a need for innovation and more importantly globalisation and would see the importance and the need to collaborate across continents. Yet most scientific think tanks are situated in state or national seats of government and act as a lobby to form opinion in favour of maximising knowledge transfer to society and to fund innovative ideas. Every country wishes to strengthen the chain of knowledge (usually generated in the universities and public research bodies) to the stage where it translates into a benefit to society in the form of products and services.
Scientific advice enters the Austrian policy making process on a number of different levels through mechanisms including federal institutes and agencies, contract research, informal networks and contacts (Social Partnership) and through commissions. For Ireland a National Development Plan has been drawn up which encompasses a strategy for Science Innovation and Technology based on excellent policy analysis, advice and outputs. Forfas is the national policy and advisory board for enterprise trade, science, technology and innovation. A group of independent advisory groups feed into the system as well some sister agencies. Spain's Ministry of Science and Innovation has been re-established four years after its dissolution in 2004. with the intention of strengthening the chain of knowledge from its generation in universities and public research bodies to better benefit society in the form of products and services. Legislation to allow more autonomy to public research bodies is mooted. The United Kingdom has some 100 'think tanks' listed some of which are closely allied to political parties, they play a role similar to those in the US and attempt to shape policy.
Is Europe suffering from a serious misconception as to the sure pathway for the progress of science? Have Europe's best scientists been given a platform for participating in European science policy?
Mag.a Landesrätin für Gesundheit und Pflegemanagement, Wissenschaft und Forschung, Graz Abstract
Politik wie Politikerin - Wie geht man mit Expertenmeinungen um? Inwieweit beeinflussen "Think Tanks" sowohl die Entwicklung politischer Strategien als auch die tagespolitischen Entscheidungen? "Think Tanks" innerhalb der Partei - Interaktion oder Wettbewerb mit "Externen"?

Als Politiker ist man üblicherweise nicht der Experte für spezifische Ressortthemen, weshalb gestaltende Politik jedenfalls Experten als Entscheidungsaufbereiter braucht. Die Hauptaufgabe von Politik ist mE - neben der Lösungskompetenz für Probleme - "Wege in die Zukunft" zu entwickeln. In erster Linie also Vorausdenken, Bedürfnisse und Chancen erkennen und nachhaltige Strukturen für die Gesellschaft der Zukunft schaffen. Dazu bedarf es der Möglichkeit des "über den Tellerrand Blickens" und des Perspektivenwechsels; beides basiert auf guten "Sparringpartnern".
In mein Ressort fällt der wertvollste "Think Tank" der Steiermark: die Scientific Community. Forschung an sich ist genau jener Transmitter, der Wissen belebt, übersetzt und weiterentwickelt. Ernsthafte Auseinandersetzungen mit dieser Community erweitern den eigenen Horizont und beleuchten Fragestellungen - und Lösungsansätze - für unsere Gesellschaft stets in neuem Licht. Die Steiermark hat sich in den letzten Jahren zu DEM Forschungsstandort in Österreich vorgearbeitet - und findet sich mittlerweile in der europäischen Liga unter den 25 forschungsintensivsten Regionen. Ein wesentlicher Bestandteil dieses Erfolges ist der (international) auffallend hohe Grad an Vernetzung innerhalb der Steiermark; Forschungsnetzwerke zu verschiedenen Themen bringen Experten aus unterschiedlichsten Bereichen (interdisziplinäre und interuniversitäre Wissenschaft, Forschung, Wirtschaft, Verwaltung, Politik) in der konkreten Ausrichtung und Umsetzung von Strategien auf einer intensiven Arbeitsebene zusammen, schaffen kritische Massen, ein Kooperationsklima und damit eine qualifizierte Meinung - abseits von Partialinteressen. Diese Expertenforen potenzieren sich - für eine relativ kleine Region wie der Steiermark - zu einer kraftvollen Schwungmasse, die Erfolge anzieht - und Einfluss auf die (Forschungs-)Politik nimmt.
Darüber hinaus steht der Steiermark ein exzellenter "Think Tank" als Beratungsgremium der Landesregierung zur Verfügung: der steirische Rat für Forschung, Innovation, Technologie und Zukunftsfragen. Als ich 2005 die Forschungsagenden übernahm, wollte ich mich nicht von einzelnen Zurufern (und damit einer gewissen Entscheidungszufälligkeit) abhängig machen. Allein ein Überblick über die facettenreiche Forschungslandschaft der Steiermark (mit 5 Universitäten, der höchsten Dichte an CD-Labors, Kompetenzzentren und außeruniversitären Forschungsstätten) fällt schwer - eine zukunftsweisende Fokussierung kann jedoch ohne qualifizierte Experten-Außensicht nicht gelingen. Ein internationales Expertengremium (aus den unterschiedlichsten Bereichen kommend) denkt seit eineinhalb Jahren für die Steiermark voraus und setzt sich - und damit die Politik - mit den wesentlichen Kernfragen und möglichen Übersetzungsstrategien für die Steiermark auseinander.
"Think Tanks" haben in der Steiermark ebenso in den politischen Parteien Tradition: Bereits in den 80er Jahren etablierte die Steirische Volkspartei das "Modell Steiermark" (mittlerweile "Modell-Zukunft-Steiermark"). Ein Vorzeigemodell, in dem Arbeitskreise zu wesentlichen gesellschaftspolitischen Fragestellungen vordenken; eine Wissensdrehscheibe bewusst über Parteigrenzen und Tagespolitik hinweg. Die Interaktion mit Externen erfolgt über Köpfe; das gezielte Einbeziehen von Kritikern, Querdenkern, visionären Vordenkern und damit wiederum eine Vernetzung zu anderen Denkwerkstätten wie auch zur konkreten Umsetzung: der Politik, um "Wege in die Zukunft" bauen zu können.
Professor of Economics and Econometrics, Swiss Institute for International Economics and Applied Economic Research, University of St.Gallen Abstract
Ich werde aus meiner Erfahrung in der Schweiz darüber sprechen, was die Politik von wissenschaftlicher Beratung erwartet. Meine Erfahrung ist, dass Politik oft von der Wissenschaft die Bestätigung der eigenen Politik oder der eigenen Maßnahmen erwartet.
President, Friedrich August v. Hayek Institute; Director, Austrian Economics Center, Vienna Abstract
1. Environment for think tanks in Europe, especially in Austria (difference between Anglo-American world and continental Europe) lack of philanthropic tradition (consequently lack of financial sources& dependence on donors& ) tradition and history of the most important and influential think tanks

2. Aims and task of think tanks in society (independent from politics and businesses)
Think Tanks need Academia (Universities) to spread the experts know how and make it understandable for the public and vice versa: Academia (Universities) need think tanks to market ideas.
Different focus of think tanks: never take them or compare them with NGOs or (semi) public institutions

3. Suggestions of how to educate the public, in order to make them understand what role a think tank can play in public opinion/life in order to remain not only a think tank (in an "isolated ivory tower") but also become "do tanks"!!!!!

4. Why Austria (businesses and politics) needs Think Tanks
Think tanks can be effective, yet subtle, vehicles for influencing the development of public policy and the deliberations of governments.
We promote market economics to attentive lawmakers across party lines
Corporations are the logical supporters of think tanks because they struggle with government regulations. Business need a source of non-partisan, data-based research that is respected by both government and the private sector. After all, studies produced by research organizations that are merely an arm of a political party would always be open to attack as biased. Government affairs departments or corporate lobbyists, tend to be focused on only legislative issues that have direct consequences for their employer.
By contrast, independent think tanks can provide ongoing, rigorous analysis of legislative questions, and thereby earn the respect of journalists and government officials. By supplying intellectual ammunition to advocates of market-oriented policies, think tanks could help shift the climate of opinion in favor of market approaches to issues like job creation.
But think tanks can only be successful if they are recognized as independent of their corporate donors. The think tank develops the analysis of issues and the arguments in support of solutions separate from the corporation. It is the very independence of the think tank that gains the attention and respect of the citizens and the opinion makers.
Group Product & Innovation Officer, Deutsche Telekom; Chairman of the Supervisory Board, T-Mobile Austria Abstract
In many industries, large multinational incumbent enterprises are faced with decreasing revenue margins at an alarming rate. Their seemingly dominant position is steadily threatened by highly efficient small companies, offering complex services without the hindrance of hierarchical levels and formal codes of conduct. This holds particularly true for the increasingly volatile and disruptive ICT sector and the incumbent major network operators (MNOs).

The constraining and weakening re-invention of the industry translates to the need for MNOs to look for a new strategy: finding ways to increase their ability to accomodate new business fields swiftly, fostering innovation and excelling in these sectors. Following extensive research conducted foremost by Chesbrough, the key to success lies in the opening of the own innovation process and the use of novel instruments.

For this purpose, Deutsche Telekom AG has established a think tank and core innovation and R&D unit within the company to systematically harness both ideation and product generation. Organizationally attached to the Group Headquarters, Deutsche Telekom Laboratories (T-Labs) are located in Berlin, as an An-Institute to the Berlin University of Technology.

At T-Labs, end users and business customers are involved consequently into the ideation process as part of their strategy towards open innovation from an early stage. Constant collaboration between industry and research with close ties to each other further allow for an open innovation approach. Some of the open innovation instruments included in the portfolio are foresight workshops, executive forums, consortia projects, joint development, strategic alliances, and spin-alongs.

Living consequently the idea of open innovation greatly increases the company's capabilities and agility to adapt to new situations and champion volatile situations. Along with open innovation tools, the continuous scanning of trends on different levels can identify these situations and build the ground for innovation and R&D work. Foresight levels include customer foresight, the product & service radar and the technology radar. The latter instrument is nourished by a Web 2.0, too, called Spree. It allows access to an increasingly growing pool of a globe-spanning network of experts, exploiting collective expert intelligence for collaborative deliberation and corporate decision making.

Concluding, open innovation can yield great benefits to a company but requires to take care of the related risks or challenges. Corporate culture should be a factor worthwhile considering when determining the level of openness of the company.
President and Chief Executive Officer, Research and Development Corporation (RAND), Santa Monica, CA Abstract
In the 1950s, RAND was perhaps the first institution to be tagged as a "think tank". These days, however, RAND is an atypical think tank. A more apt term might be "policy research organization". The US Department of Defense calls RAND a "studies and analysis research center." Nevertheless, RAND is still frequently called a think tank by the media and other observers.

In one sense, it is certainly not wrong to call RAND a think tank. In the US context, most think tanks perform policy research in the public interest with funds provided by foundations or individual or corporate donors, but with the specific terms of the research determined by RAND. About 10% of RAND's work is funded this way. Since RAND's revenue last year was $230M, this leaves a $23M think tank, about 80 full time researcher equivalents, a fairly substantial think tank.

The other 90% of RAND's research is performed under contracts or grants. RAND and its clients agree in advance on the purposes of the research, the price to be paid to RAND, the timetable, and the reporting requirements. This marks a substantial difference between RAND and most other organizations called "think tanks" in the US.

Also in the US context, many think tanks, especially those in Washington, D.C., have an agenda and staff that are politically or ideologically motivated. Individuals identified as staff members of those institutions frequently comment on political developments or even on politicians themselves. RAND strives very hard to avoid any political or ideological association, chiefly through its review processes. More important, the research culture of RAND is fiercely independent and dedicated to objectivity. As such it rejects partisanship. This has become an increasingly important distinction between RAND and other US think tanks as political polarization has grown in the US.

There are many other ways in which RAND is both different from and similar to other think tanks and it is worth exploring all of these in a discussion of the role of think tanks in society:

- Governance: the role of trustees and the issues of independence from government.
- Policy Breadth: the think tank's fields of policy competence
- Researcher breadth: the range of academic degrees and work experience on the research staff
- Internationalization: the extent to which the think tank is focused on local, national, regional or international issues
- Publications policy: the ability of the public to gain access to the fruits of the institution's work
- Methods of achieving policy effect: direct vs. indirect; advocacy vs. dispassion
Rector, University of Vienna Chair
Mitglied des Kabinetts Hahn, EU-Kommissar für Regionalpolitik, Brüssel Coordination

Dr. Dervilla DONNELLY

Chairman, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, Dublin; Member, Austrian Council for Research and Technology Development, Vienna

1948-1954 Studied Chemistry at the University College Dublin, National University of Ireland
1955-1956 Postdoctoral Fellow at the University of California, Los Angeles
1956-1978 Lecturer in Organic Chemistry, University College Dublin
1971 Research Fellow: Kunglia Tekniska Högskolän, Stockholm, Sweden
1978-1980 Leader of the delegation to the CSCE meetings in Bonn and Hamburg to promote security and co-operation in Europe
1978-1983 Member of the National Board for Science and Technology (NBST)
1979-1996 Professor of Phytochemistry, University College Dublin
1982-1984 President of the Phytochemical Society of Europe
1984 Irish representative on the EEC Committee for Training in Science and Technology (ACPM-STT)
1985-1990 Chairman, European Science Research Councils, (ESRC)
1989-1992 Vice-Chairman of the Board of Governors and Guardians of the National Gallery of Ireland
1989-1992 President of the Royal Dublin Society
1990-1991 Senior Vice-President, Royal Irish Academy
1994 Chairman, National Education Convention
1994-1996 President, Institute of Chemistry of Ireland
1997-1999 Council Member, Royal Society of Chemistry
1997-1998 Senior Vice-President, Royal Irish Academy
1998-2000 Vice-President and Member of the Executive Council of the European Science Foundation
1998 Chairman, INTAS Evaluation group
1998 Chairman, INCO 5 year evaluation
1998 Chairman, Evaluation Committee OECD Programme "Megascience Forum"
2001-2005 Chairman, Commission for Assisted Human Reproduction
2005 Member of the Board of National Museum of Ireland and Chair of the Audit Committee
2006 Member of Council Royal Irish Academy

Mag.a Kristina EDLINGER-PLODER

Mag.a Landesrätin für Gesundheit und Pflegemanagement, Wissenschaft und Forschung, Graz

 Studium der Rechtswissenschaften
1995-1998 Mitarbeit im Aufbau eines Handelsunternehmens
1998 Eintritt in das Büro von Landeshauptmann Waltraud Klasnic
2002 Leiterin des Büros von Landeshauptmann Waltraud Klasnic
2003-2005 Landesrätin für Jugend, Familie und Generationen, Bildung und Wissenschaft
2004-2005 Zusätzlich Landesrätin für Finanzen
2005-2010 Landesrätin für Wissenschaft, Forschung, Verkehr und Technik
seit 2010 Landesrätin für Gesundheit und Pflegemanagement, Wissenschaft und Forschung

Dr. Dr.h.c. Gebhard KIRCHGÄSSNER

Professor of Economics and Econometrics, Swiss Institute for International Economics and Applied Economic Research, University of St.Gallen

1976-1977 Wissenschaftlicher Assistent, Universität Konstanz
1977-1984 Oberassistent, Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung der Eidgenössischen Technischen Hochschule Zürich
1984-1992 Professor (C4) für Volkswirtschaftslehre/Finanzwissenschaft, Universität Osnabrück
1997-2004 Präsident der Forschungskommission der Universität St. Gallen
1998 Gastprofessor, Max-Planck-Projektgruppe "Recht der Gemeinschaftsgüter", Bonn
1999-2001 Vorstand (Dekan) der Volkswirtschaftlichen Abteilung der Universität St. Gallen
1997-2003 Mitglied der Kommission für Konjunkturfragen
1998-2000 Präsident des Advisory Board Steuerpolitik beim Eidgenössischen Finanzdepartement
2004-2007 Präsident der Kommission für Konjunkturfragen
2007-2011 Präsident der Schweizerischen Gesellschaft für Volkswirtschaft und Statistik

Mag. Dr. Barbara KOLM

President, Friedrich August v. Hayek Institute; Director, Austrian Economics Center, Vienna

1994-1997 Assistant Professor, Department of Tourism and Service Economics, University of Innsbruck
since 2000 President, F. August v. Hayek Institute
since 2006 Director, Austrian Economics Center

MBA Christopher SCHLÄFFER

Group Product & Innovation Officer, Deutsche Telekom; Chairman of the Supervisory Board, T-Mobile Austria

 Christopher Schläffer became Deutsche Telekom's Group Product & Innovation Officer in December 2006. Thus he is member of the Executive Committee of T-Mobile International responsible for Product & Innovation and at the same time chairman of the segment board of T-Online.
 Prior to assuming his current role Christopher Schläffer was Corporate Development Officer (CDO) of Deutsche Telekom in charge of group strategy, innovation, research & development as well as venture capital. From 2002 until September 2006 he also had responsibility for group technology, processes and IT. From 2000 to 2002 Christopher Schläffer was heading Corporate Strategy as Senior Executive Vice President.
 Christopher Schläffer joined Deutsche Telekom in July 1998. Before that he worked with Accenture, the global consulting, technology and outsourcing company, and in the pharmaceutical industry.
 Christopher Schläffer holds a master's degree in business administration from the Vienna University of Business Administration and Economics and has been elected one of the Young Global Leaders by the World Economic Forum.

Dr. James A. THOMSON

President and Chief Executive Officer, Research and Development Corporation (RAND), Santa Monica, CA

1967-1969 Purdue University, M.Sc. in Physics
1969-1972 Purdue University, Ph.D. in Physics
1972-1974 University of Wisconsin, Post-doctoral research associate in experimental nuclear physics
1974-1977 Office of the Secretary of Defense, The Pentagon
1977-1981 National Security Council, The White House
1981-1986 Director of RAND's National Security Strategies research program in Project AIR FORCE
1983-1984 Director of RAND's International Security and Defense Policy program
1984-1989 Vice President and responsible for the Project AIR FORCE division, The RAND Corporation
since 1989 President and Chief Executive Officer, The RAND Corporation

Dr. Georg WINCKLER

Rector, University of Vienna

 Studies at Princeton University and the University of Vienna
1968 Promotion Dr. rer. pol.
since 1978 Full Professor of Economics, University of Vienna; several appointments as Visiting Professor (i.a. Georgetown University, USA)
since 1999 Rector of the University of Vienna (re-elected 2003 and 2007)
2000-2005 President of the Austrian Rectors' Conference (re-elected 2001 and 2004)
2001-2005 Vice-President and Member of the Board of the European University Association (EUA), Brussels-Geneva
2005-2009 President of the European University Association (EUA), Brussels-Geneva

Dr. Stefan ZOTTI

Mitglied des Kabinetts Hahn, EU-Kommissar für Regionalpolitik, Brüssel

2002 Master in Catholic Theology, University of Graz and University of Vienna
2006 Doctor in Catholic Theology, University of Vienna
2009 Postgraduate Master in European Studies, Danube University Krems
2002-2004 Assistant to Mr Othmar Karas, MEP, European Parliament
2005-2007 Parliamentary Assistant to Mr Reinhold Lopatka, MP and Mrs Carina Felzmann, MP, Austrian Parliament
2007 Deputy Head of Cabinet of Mr Reinhold Lopatka, State Secretary for Sports, Austrian Federal Chancellery
2007-2009 Member of Cabinet of Mr Johannes Hahn, Federal Minister for Science and Research, Federal Ministry for Science and Research
since 2010 Member of Cabinet of Mr Johannes Hahn, Commissioner for Regional Policy, European Commission
since 2011 Lecturer (part-time) in Ethics and Technology Assessment at the University of Applied Sciences Joanneum, Austria
since 2012 Lecturer (part-time) in Regional Policy at the University of Applied Sciences Burgenland, Austria

Technologiegespräche

Timetable einblenden

21.08.2008

10:00 - 12:30Technologiebrunch gegeben von der Tiroler ZukunftsstiftungSocial
13:00 - 13:20Eröffnung durch das Europäische Forum AlpbachPlenary
13:20 - 14:00PlenumPlenary
14:00 - 14:30PlenumPlenary
15:00 - 15:45Ethik in der WissenschaftPlenary
15:45 - 16:30StammzellenPlenary
17:00 - 18:00Politik und Wissenschaft - Beratung durch WissenschaftPlenary
20:00 - 21:30BionikPlenary
21:30 - 23:30Empfang gegeben von Alcatel-Lucent Austria AGSocial

22.08.2008

09:00 - 16:00Arbeitskreis 01: Von der Grundlagenforschung zur ökonomischen WertschöpfungBreakout
09:00 - 16:00Arbeitskreis 02: Integrität in Forschung und WissenschaftBreakout
09:00 - 16:00Arbeitskreis 03: Mythen der Life Sciences und ihre KonsequenzenBreakout
09:00 - 16:00Arbeitskreis 04: Luftfahrt und UmweltBreakout
09:00 - 16:00Arbeitskreis 05: Think Tanks in ÖsterreichBreakout
09:00 - 16:00Arbeitskreis 06: Gender Mainstreaming in Forschung und Entwicklung. Realitäten wahrnehmen und visionär entscheidenBreakout
09:00 - 16:00Arbeitskreis 07: Erfolgsfaktor Mensch - Regionen im WettbewerbBreakout
09:00 - 16:00Arbeitskreis 08: Klimawandel - die Zukunft des VerkehrsBreakout
09:00 - 16:00Arbeitskreis 09: Governance der angewandten Forschung: Verantwortlichkeiten, Unabhängigkeit und RessourcenBreakout
09:00 - 16:00Arbeitskreis 10: Digital HealthcareBreakout
09:00 - 18:00Junior Alpbach - Wissenschaft und Technologie für junge MenschenBreakout
09:00 - 15:00Ö1 Kinderuni Alpbach - Wissenschaft und Technologie für KinderBreakout
10:00 - 16:00Arbeitskreis 11: Energieeffizienz - Chancen erkennen, Potenziale nutzenBreakout
10:00 - 15:00Sonderveranstaltung: Vom Stabilitätspakt für Südosteuropa zum Regionalen Kooperationsrat (RCC) - ein neuer Impuls für die europäische Perspektive des Westbalkans im Bereich Hochschulbildung und Forschung?Breakout
16:30 - 17:15Die Zukunft der Wissenschaft IPlenary
17:15 - 18:30Globaler Wettbewerb um globale TalentePlenary
20:00 - 21:30Informations- und Kommunikationsinfrastrukturen - Nervenzentren der modernen GesellschaftPlenary

23.08.2008

10:00 - 10:30Naturwissenschaftliche Bildung für eine technikorientierte GesellschaftPlenary
10:30 - 11:15Die Zukunft der Wissenschaft IIPlenary
11:15 - 11:45Die Zukunft der Umwelt und LandwirtschaftPlenary
12:00 - 12:15Junior Alpbach und Ö1 Kinderuni Alpbach 2008Plenary
12:15 - 13:15Improbable Research and the Ig Nobel prizePlenary
13:15 - 14:00Imbiss zum Abschluss der Veranstaltung, gegeben von AVL List GmbHSocial