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07: Wasserstoff – Zukunft des Verkehrs?

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Alpbacher Hauptschule
Breakout / Working Group
in englischer Sprache

Sind Wasserstoff und die Brennstoffzelle ein Hot Spot der internationalen Forschungs- und Technologiepolitik? Eine Schlüsseltechnologie hinsichtlich des industrie- und beschäftigungspolitischen Potenzials, aber auch der Umwelt-, Energie- und Verkehrspolitik? Systemimmanente Vorteile der Brennstoffzelle für eine drastische Verbrauchs-, Abgas- und Lärmreduktion veranlassten alle großen Automobilkonzerne zu bedeutenden Investitionen für die Entwicklung dieser Technologie. Aber auch die stationäre Energietechnik, die Anwender mobiler Applikationen, die Schiffs- und Luftfahrt verfolgen eine Markteinführung dieser in der Raumfahrt seit Jahrzehnten erfolgreichen Technologie. Der Arbeitskreis analysiert die sich verändernden Rahmenbedingungen wie schwindende fossile Energieressourcen in politisch instabilen Regionen und die bedrohte Versorgungssicherheit für Verkehrs- und Energiedienstleistungen durch die Nachfrageexplosion in Schwellenländern. Er analysiert aber auch deren Auswirkungen wie die Bedrohung vieler Industriearbeitsplätze bei fehlender oder verspäteter Adaption auf neue Technologien, den bevorstehenden drastischen Klimawandel durch Treibhausgase sowie die Überschreitung erlaubter Grenzwerte durch Schadstoffe und Lärm. Aus erneuerbaren Energiequellen gewonnener Wasserstoff und/oder die Brennstoffzelle haben das Potenzial, einen entscheidenden Beitrag zur Lösung dieser Probleme zu leisten. Da hier eine aktive Rolle der Technologiepolitik gefordert ist, haben sowohl die Europäische Union wie auch die USA Technologieplattformen und engagierte F&E-Programme ins Leben gerufen. Das bmvit hat Ende 2004 für Österreich eine Wasserstoff- und Brennstoffzelleninitiative gestartet.

Vortragende

Member of the Board, Geely Automobile and Volvo Cars Corporation, Hangzhou and Gothenburg; Chairman, London Taxi Company, Coventry; Chairman, Chemring Plc, Romsey Abstract
General Motors (GM) has been working on the development of hydrogen fuel cells for sustainable individual mobility for many years now. During this time, GM has invested more than one billion dollars in this technology. 600 researchers and engineers in Germany, Japan and the USA are working on making fuel cell technology ready for mass production. The hydrogen age will definitely come. The only question is who will be the first to bring this technology to market in a commercially viable form?

Development stages

GM has reached a number of milestones on its way to becoming a leading manufacturer of fuel cell technology. The focus along the way was on the HydroGen3, which is based on the Opel Zafira. Last year, the development vehicle traveled a record 10,000 kilometers in the Fuel Cell Marathon from Hammerfest, Norway, across Europe to Cabo da Roca near the Portuguese capital of Lisbon. In addition, HydroGen3 vehicles are being used on regular delivery routes in Tokyo (FedEx) and Washington (U.S. Postal Service), as well as in Berlin, where IKEA uses the HydroGen3 for service trips to customers within the framework of the Clean Energy Partnership.

GM is pursuing a completely different approach with the  Autonomy ,  Hy-Wire and  Sequel concept vehicles, which were specially developed for fuel cell propulsion. Along with the hydrogen tanks, the propulsion system in these studies is located in a skateboard chassis, which neither reduces interior space for passengers, nor affects the size of the trunk. The Sequel has an operating range of 480 kilometers and accelerates from zero to 100 km/h in less than 10 seconds  figures comparable to those of current combustion engine vehicles. The Sequel is the successor of the fuel cell concept vehicles AUTOnomy and Hy-Wire, which were presented in 2002 and first featured the skateboard chassis. All vehicles combine fuel cell and by-wire technology.

Infrastructure as a success factor

In the interest of economic efficiency, it is vital that fuel cell vehicles are brought onto the market in large numbers. However, there are other requirements which also need to be met. For example, a wide-reaching hydrogen filling station infrastructure is necessary. As hydrogen does not exist alone in nature, it must be produced using energy. In the long-term, this must be facilitated in an economically efficient manner by using renewable energy sources. Renewable energy for stationary users (households and industry) is more strongly subsidized than for use in the production of hydrogen as a renewable fuel. This results in an imbalance to the disadvantage of hydrogen as a fuel. If the transport sector is to achieve the same CO2 reductions as households and industry, then it must be allowed the same access to renewable energy.

The introduction of the hydrogen economy in the transport sector will depend on the availability of a wide-reaching fuel supply for drivers as soon as possible. Only then will enough customers be found to enable economically viable volume production of the vehicles. (The problems introducing natural gas vehicles are a good example of this). Building up this infrastructure could be accelerated by subsidy programs, so that automakers as well as fuel suppliers could more quickly achieve cost-effective operating conditions, which ultimately benefit both customers and the environment.

Last year, the European Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Platform (HFP) was established in Brussels. This forum, made up of representatives from research, industry and politics, developed a strategy to enable Europe to take a leading role in this technology and proposed the necessary conditions for this to happen. The EU also has the ambitious objective of replacing 20 percent of the current fuels for transportation with alternative fuels by 2020. Japan wants to have at least 50,000 fuel cell vehicles on the road by 2010. And the US Department of Energy has made 350 million dollars available to advance scientific and research projects, with the goal of establishing a nation-wide hydrogen economy in the USA.

Technology for a better environment

Today, there are over six billion people in the world, and world population is expected to surpass 8 billion by 2030. Most of these people will reside in emerging economies where the demand for personal transportation is expected to escalate rapidly. Increasing affluence in both developed and developing countries will drive tremendous increases in vehicle numbers. Sixty percent of new sales growth is expected to occur in developing countries. Vehicle sales will be driven by the growing middle class, increased urbanization, and rising gross domestic product, which correlate almost directly with vehicle ownership. Currently, only about 12 % of the world s population own automobiles. In 2030, this number is expected to be more than 17 %. Combined with the growing population, this means that the global vehicle car park is anticipated to double by 2030 to a total of about 1 ½ billion vehicles.

In any case, the demand for fuel will grow steadily. With fuels based on petroleum, this would increase our dependency on imported oil. More than 50 % of the proven reserves have been produced already in all regions of the world except the Middle East. Today, 98 % of the fuels used in transportation are based on petroleum. Imagine how dependent on the Middle East the world would be in the future if we continued to rely mainly on oil! But what alternatives do we have and what about their environmental impact?

All studies of greenhouse gas emissions from different propulsion methods and fuels, from fuel production to actual use in cars (well-to-wheel studies), confirm GM s strategy. The main result of the analyses: hydrogen vehicles with fuel cell propulsion offer the best results when the hydrogen comes from renewable energy sources, such as biomass, wind or solar energy. In these process chains, there are no harmful or greenhouse gas emissions produced.

Therefore, hydrogen is our long-term vision. From an automotive industry perspective, hydrogen offers tremendous potential as a fuel, not only because of the environmental benefits it can provide, but also because it can be produced from so many energy sources. The many feedstocks available will enable the transition of transportation from 98 % reliance on petroleum to use of a diversity of energy sources, including renewable energy.

By supplementing fossil fuels, we can reduce not only global greenhouse gas emissions and our dependency on imported oil, but we can also foster development of local energy sources. This will also introduce competition into energy pricing  which could stabilize fuel and energy costs in the long term.

No matter which lens you choose to view the hydrogen economy through, it addresses all of the issues associated with petroleum and offers the real opportunity for sustainable mobility.

The best way to use hydrogen in vehicles is by using the fuel cell as the energy converter. A fuel cell vehicle running on hydrogen is the ultimate environmentally friendly automobile because its only emission is water  no pollutants, no CO2. Fuel cells are in the order of twice as energy efficient as the internal combustion engine, and they are quiet as well.

Opportunities in the Future

The automotive industry will first enter the market with an innovation such as fuel cell technology where they see the best opportunity for commercial success. So if Europe wants to be at the forefront, it is vital to approach this properly. Industry and politics have to work hand-in-hand. Public support is important, as only then can a hydrogen economy in Europe develop quickly, which is the basis for an intact, functioning infrastructure. That is why GM welcomes the idea of so-called EU Lighthouse Projects, and actively participates in the bodies which prepare these projects and the establishment of a hydrogen economy.

Fuel cell and hydrogen technology offers excellent opportunities. Completely new vocational and industrial fields will develop. Europe thereby has yet another opportunity to become an exporter of technological and economic advancement. This also results in a positive effect on national economies.

Summary

Fuel cell and hydrogen technology is an excellent opportunity for clean, resource-saving and sustainable mobility. Considering that fossil fuels such as crude oil and natural gas are diminishing, this technology offers a long-term possibility for economic success. The European automotive industry can once again take on a leading role  in the future of sustainable mobility.
Vice President Marketing & Sales, MAGNA STEYR Fahrzeugtechnik AG & Co KG, Graz Abstract
MAGNAs Motivation zur Entwicklung von Wasserstofftanks und zur Fahrzeugintegration von alternativen Antrieben -
MAGNA s motivation for developing hydrogen tanks and for integrating alternative drive systems

Sustainability is one of the main objectives to secure our individual mobility. Today there are more than 800 million passenger cars and commercial vehicles worldwide. Therefore alternative fuels and powertrain solutions count among the biggest challenges for the future automotive industry. International well-to-wheel studies show that hydrogen has a great potential to become the future fuel for automotive applications. As energy carrier hydrogen will yield many benefits for Europe: greater energy and economic security through decreased dependence on foreign sources of energy, increased economic diversity and growth, cleaner air resulting from less fossil fuel combustion.

Hydrogen-powered vehicles, no matter if they are powered by electrical engines via fuel cells or by internal combustion engines, have to successfully compete with conventional gasoline-or diesel-powered vehicles. The main criteria are cruising range, maintenance, weight and price. Within the next decades, hydrogen-powered vehicles are predicted to remain niche products. Generally, hydrogen can be stored on-board as compressed gas at high pressure, as a liquid at low temperature, or in solid media. The first two methods are rather established technologies, whereas solid media are still under investigation. However, none of the current storage technologies satisfies all requirements of automobile manufacturers and end users. The future potential of liquid hydrogen storage is expected to be high because of its low working pressure, which allows for complex tank geometries that can easily be adapted to the vehicle space available.

Therefore, MAGNA STEYR as global supplier and manufacturer of niche vehicles is convinced that liquid hydrogen storage will become the most promising alternative system for automotive applications. In order to offer an added value to the automotive OEMs, MAGNA STEYR aims to build a competence centre and accumulate hydrogen-specific knowledge and expertise in-house. Moreover, our focus on hydrogen constitutes a considerable competitive advantage over other automotive suppliers.

Like in other areas, MAGNA STEYR prefers public and private partnerships both in Austria and in the European Union. Based on the present prototype and demonstration phase, these partnerships aim to elaborate solutions for automotive hydrogen storage systems, which make mass production feasible. A further strategic motivation is to establish the leadership of MAGNA STEYR in future developments and high volume production of components and systems in that automotive field. In the next few years, our main goal is to set up a production area, in which we can guarantee an automotive production process for small- and medium-sized production volumes.

Up to today, mobile storage containments for hydrogen have mainly been derived as spin-offs from the aeronautics and space industry. Since MAGNA STEYR has considerable experience in both vehicle and space technology, it is a preferred partner for automotive OEMs working on alternative propulsion systems. One example is a partnership between BMW and MAGNA STEYR for the world s first hydrogen-powered serial production vehicle containing a liquid hydrogen storage system.

In addition, a coordinated growth of infrastructure is important to increase valuable public and private resources as well as societal benefits. Governments will play an instrumental role in providing incentives and helping reduce risks for end-users and technology producers to test the financial and technical performance of these new technologies.
General Manager, Powertrain Engineering Division Toyota Motor Engineering & Manufacturing Europe, Brussels Abstract
Mass Production of Hybrid Technology, reducing CO2 and exhaust emissions

In December 1997, Toyota introduced the first mass-produced hybrid powertrain in the Prius in the Japanese market, combining a gasoline engine, an electric motor and a high power Nickel-Metalhydride battery in order to enhance the efficiency of the powertrain and to reduce CO2 emissions by 4 characteristics:
1) Energy-loss reduction: Stopping the engine in idling
2) Energy Recovery and reuse: Regenerating brake energy as electrical energy and reuse in the electric motor
3) Motor assistance in acceleration
4) Maximized vehicle s overall efficiency by using the electric motor to run the vehicle under operating conditions with low engine efficiency and generating electricity in operating conditions with high engine efficiency
The Prius was brought with improved power to the European and US markets in the year 2000.

Also in 1997, the Coaster bus, powered by a series hybrid system was launched.
In 2001, THS-C, which combined THS concept with CVT, was installed in the Estima Hybrid minivan on the Japanese market, featuring a 4x4 powertrain by electric motor on the rear wheels and demonstrating that a hybrid powertrain does not require a dedicated body.
In the same year, the mild hybrid system THS-M was installed in the Crown luxury sedan, sold in Japan. In contrast to other Toyota Hybrids, this vehicle carries a lead-acid battery for its 42V hybrid system.
In 2003, several hybrid vehicles were added to the Toyota lineup: The Alphard hybrid, carrying the THS-C powertrain and the Hino Dutro (Toyota Dyna) truck with a diesel engine and parallel hybrid powertrain.

In September 2003, Toyota introduced the second generation of the Prius with THSII(Prius), further enhancing environmental performance and driving power by boosting the hybrid system voltage and achieving significant advances in the control system, aiming for a synergy between motor power and engine power.
The Toyota Prius is not intended to be an eco-car that sacrifices driving pleasure, comfort and space as a trade-off for low emissions. The development of the hybrid system for the Toyota Prius was focusing on excellent fuel economy, lowest NOx, HC and PM emissions, electric vehicle (EV) driving mode for zero-emission driving and an excellent overall environmental performance in the Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) while delivering a high level of driving performance and highest safety level proven by the 5-star Euro-NCAP rating. Several new technologies are used like an electric air conditioning system and a boost converter in the Hybrid system which is capable of raising the voltage from the battery, thus enabling the inverter to drive a high output motor/generator.
In the European reference test cycle, the car achieves 4.3 l/100 km (104g/km CO2) for the combined cycle. In addition, it was the first car ever to simultaneously comply with Japanese J-ULEV, American AT-PZEV and European EURO IV emission regulations. Hydrocarbons (HC) and nitrous oxide (NOx) emissions are respectively 80 % and 87.5 % lower than those required by EUROIV regulations for petrol engines. The NOx emissions of the Prius are also 96 % below those of dieselspecific EURO IV regulations.
A special button installed in the instrument panel allows the driver to select the EV driving mode. When this button is pressed, the Prius will use  for a distance depending on the battery state of charge and up to a speed of 50km/h - only the electric motor to power the wheels, producing zero emissions and a very low level of noise and vibration.
Additionally, Toyota has improved the performance of the Prius in terms of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), a method already standardised under ISO 14040. LCA accounts for the emissions produced during the following stages of the car s life: materials production, vehicle production, driving, maintenance and disposal. The Toyota Prius compared to a normal automatic transmission petrol car of the same size, manages to undercut CO2 emissions by as much as 43 % throughout the entire LCA, for a cumulative driving distance of 150,000 km, calculated on the basis of the European fuel consumption test cycle.

In 2005, THSII(SUV) was introduced in a hybrid model of the Lexus RX400h on the Japanese, American and European market, while a derivate of this hybrid system was applicated to the Toyota Highlander for some of these markets. The THSII(SUV) features a speed reduction gear and the use of higher operating voltage for increased output density of the electrical system, yielding a power performance equal to or higher than that of conventional vehicles while a fuel efficiency significantly better than that of conventional gasoline engine vehicles of the same weight has been achieved. The 4WD design, in which the front and rear wheels are independently driven by two electric motors, has improved fuel efficiency while maintaining optimum vehicle stability and controllability. The rear motor assist function has also improved the power performance.

While electric vehicles (EVs) never succeeded to penetrate the market, Toyota sold more than 380.000 hybrid vehicles in less than 8 years after the start of the hybrid vehicle mass production with a rapidly growing yearly production capacity. Toyota and Lexus will continue to introduce further hybrid models in the next years like for example the Lexus GS hybrid.

Experimental fuel cell hybrid vehicles incorporate a fuel cell and a battery to ensure a constant supply of electric power. To manage this hybrid combination of power sources, Toyota has incorporated the same computerised control technologies as those used in the THS already in 2001 in the Toyota FCHV-4.
Limited numbers of the Toyota FCHV sport utility vehicle, an improved version of the FCHV-4, are running in Japan and the United States since the end of 2002. Powered by compressed hydrogen in a gaseous state, the Toyota FC stack develops 90kW and 260 Nm torque, giving it a top speed of 155 km/h and a cruising range of 300 km. Even though it may take much more than a decade until FCHVs will be driving on the roads in the same numbers as today s hybrid vehicles based on an internal combustion engine (ICE), many parts and control systems of the hybrid powertrain can be identical in the ICE-based hybrid and in a future fuel-cell-based hybrid vehicle.
Staatssekretär für Verkehr, Innovation und Technologie, Wien Abstract
Development of Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Technologies
supported by Austria s Alternative Propulsion Systems Council
and the R&D-Programme  Austrian Advanced Automotive Technology

The Austrian Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technology (BMVIT) is strongly committed to promote technological breakthroughs in the fields of transport, environmental and energy technologies as their implementation in industrial applications offers not only brilliant employment opportunities, but also solutions for pressing ecological and transport problems. In this regard fuel cells and hydrogen offer unique advantages concerning energy efficiency, security of energy supply and the reduction of noise and exhaust emissions.
The automobile industry is a particularly successful segment of the Austria s economy and one of the most important economic sectors in the world. It continuously initiates, but also requires outstanding technological achievements in order to meet tightening environmental standards and rising demand for more comfort. However, in order to secure the long-term competitiveness of this industry it is necessary to invest in R&D to prepare technological breakthroughs in time and to compete with countries with lower wages.
In 2001 the BMVIT launched therefore the R&D-Programme "A3 - Austrian Advanced Automotive Technology , concentrating on highly innovative research projects with increased development risk, which receive higher levels of funding than is usually provided by technology promotion programmes. The goal is to achieve real technology breakthroughs and not incremental improvements to existing technologies. Grants are awarded according to the competitive principle through invitation for proposals.
A3 covers the entire innovation cycle and offers funding from basic research to demonstration projects. Furthermore, projects will also be funded which adapt education and training to the new requirements and create an adequate supply of qualified human resources. Another pillar of the programme supports international networking, mobility and co-operation between researchers.
A3 strives as well for synergies from interdisciplinary co-operation between industrial, university and non-university research and between suppliers and users of technologies in joint R&D projects. A3 targets support at all developments which one institution cannot carry out alone, but which require strategic planning and the expertise of a number of partners. Therefore, only consortia consisting of at least 3 partners may submit project proposals.
Due to the dramatically increased importance of alternative propulsion systems the BMVIT extended A3 in 2004 by the "Austrian hydrogen and fuel cell initiative" in order to stimulate the development of all kind of alternative engines and fuels (including hybrids, CNG, and biofuels). In accordance with Austrian environmental and energy policy the focus in terms of hydrogen production is upon renewable sources of energy. A number of research institutes in Austria are pursuing technological solutions, which are outside the mainstream of international development. This opens up interesting niches and the chance for a unique selling position. To minimise development risks, the BMVIT welcomes also projects which offer multiple benefits for other areas of technology regardless of the success of fuel cell and hydrogen.
Until July 25, the third call for proposals in A3 was open for projects developing alternative propulsion systems as well as vehicle electronics, material research and production technologies. 41 proposals were submitted which will be selected after evaluation and realised together with the 39 projects from the first two calls.
Lighthouse projects are a new instrument of BMVIT to support the market introduction of emerging new technologies. Complementary to the A3 calls the BMVIT supports by them large pilot and demonstration projects in order to proof the successful operation of new technologies, to assemble providers and users of technologies as well as all other relevant stakeholders in one project, to prepare the public for technological change, and to learn from still existing problems and improve the performance of these new technologies. These lighthouse projects focus only on alternative propulsion systems and fuels.
15 million Euro of funding are available for A3 and lighthouse projects for the years 2005 and 2006 (5 M¬ for the third A3 call 2005, another 5M¬ for the A3 call in 2006 and 5M¬ for lighthouse projects).
The market introduction of alternative propulsion systems and fuels needs a more active technology policy to overcome the "chicken and the egg problem" between automotive and fuel industry each waiting for first steps and investments from the partners. Therefore the BMVIT provides not only funding by its programmes but offers a broad portfolio of additional support activities for Austrian research institutions.
Following the principles of modern technology policy the BMVIT is convinced that public authorities can facilitate the development of new technologies far beyond financial contributions. Therefore, the BMVIT has decided to establish a new institution called the Austrian Propulsion Systems Council (A.P.S.C.) with the following field of activities:
" build up interdisciplinary research co-operations and comprehensive and trans-sectoral demonstration projects.
" stimulate the co-operation of complimentary partners in order to overcome the  chicken and egg problem .
" adopt supportive legal framework conditions (like fuel taxation, privileged access to sensitive areas and emission or technical standards) in order to avoid barriers for innovation.
" discuss topics and organisation of programme calls with all relevant stakeholders in order to optimise the funding instruments.
" inform extensively and in detail about all national and international funding opportunities.
" analyse technological trends and evaluate technology foresight and assessment studies.
" support the definition of interesting niches for Austrian research institutions within the technological development.
" facilitate the integration in national and international networks as well as participation in FP6 projects and other research activities.
" represent Austria s position on FP7, EU-technology platforms, ERA-NET s, IEA and other activities.
" coordinate regional research activities in order to avoid duplication of efforts and to achieve a critical mass in the international perception.
" give Austrian research institutions a long-term security in planning and investments due to a clear public commitment beyond election terms.
The A.P.S.C. will broadly promote the development and employment of alternative propulsion systems and fuels supporting as agency Austrian research institutions in their technological development projects and platform for their national and international activities.
ao.Univ.-Prof., Institut für Verbrennungskraftmaschinen und Kraftfahrzeugbau, Technische Universität Wien Abstract
Motivation

Road traffic knows three major emission problems as follows: Particulate Matter- (PM) and nitrogen dioxide emissions (NO2) as well as carbon dioxide (CO2). Furthermore, a stable and secure supply of energy carriers is becoming more and more vital. An additional fact is that NO2 and PM air quality limits are frequently exceeded at close to road-air-quality measurement sites. As a result, the European Union aims at raising shares of renewable and alternative energy carriers to 20%, which divides in 10% natural gas, 5% bio fuels and 5% hydrogen, by 2020.

Furthermore, passenger services are the focus of interest whereas the effect of one clean heavy duty truck was ten times higher than the one of a passenger car due to their high average driving ranges. Especially crucial on a national and European level is the high share of heavy-duty traffic. About 80% of goods traffic is carried out on roads in the European Union whereas, in comparison, it is only 40% in the US. The caused emissions can have a share of up to 90% on Austrian transit routes depending on the type of pollutant considered.

Consequently a major improvement in environmental quality must employ new, alternative fuels on the one hand and the suiting alternative propulsion systems on the other hand.

One very attractive scenario to reach the 2020 goals could be the use of natural gas as energy carrier for the automotive future in the short and medium term and hydrogen in the medium and long term. As recently published scientific works show, the pollutants nitro oxides and particulate matters can be reduced by 90% in the first step. The CO2 emissions would decrease by 10%. What these two energy carriers have in common is the similar storage technology for their gaseous and liquid phases.
Natural gas as short and medium term alternative
At the moment these positive effects can mainly be utilized in urban areas, as the operation range of the vehicles is currently limited to a maximum of 300 km. In order to improve the tangible use of the vehicles for the customer and thus the customers acceptance of the vehicles, especially considering medium and long distances, an increase of the operation range is desirable. Current limiting factors are as follows:
- Hybrid-operation, which demands a second fuel system consisting of injectors, fuel pipes, a tank and a charcoal filter. A second fuel injection system for the engine is needed including electronic control units.
- CNG tanks of steel, which have influence on the total vehicle mass as well as axle mass distribution. As a further consequence, the luggage compound and the vehicle load capacity are limited. Moreover, the limited pressure level of 200 bars allows only relatively low energy densities compared to fluid fuels.
In the short term the development of a concept of an automotive series production solution is desirable, beating already existing concepts in operation range, weight, cost, efficiency and thus customer acceptance.
The engine of the concept should be optimized for CNG combustion, as it shall be used in the car as pure monovalent concept without any further fuel systems to raise weight and cost advantages and reach a high thermo dynamical degree of effectiveness. The combination of these technologies should make operation ranges comparable to gasoline-powered cars possible.
Even more, an innovative CNG system can use renewable CO2 neutral fuels as biogases better and can be a preliminary stage to the application of 700 bar high-pressure storage of hydrogen in a later stage.

Hydrogen as medium and long-term strategy
By employing an interdisciplinary approach towards the following topics in fuel cell vehicle development and fuel cell systems, Austria can provide major contributions to reach the year 2020 goals.
- Energy Technology: Demand, ecological power supply, transport of hydrogen as well as demand to infrastructure.
- Fuel Cell Technology: Rapidly increasing energy density of fuel cells for use as car drive in competition with other energy conversion technologies.
- Vehicle Technology: Reorientation in development toward electrical powered drive trains and electrical powered auxiliary systems. Adaptations in overall car concepts are necessary.

In more detail, beginning with the generation of the energy transfer medium hydrogen, the ecological, technological and economical aspects of the different possible development paths will have to be investigated. Especially the ecological sense of the overall process chain  Energy Transfer Medium Hydrogen has got to be a major part. Synergy effects may be gained in combination with renewable energy sources. In addition, side effects, such as is independence of soon scarce resources, can be utilized.

At the other end of the technology chain there are the new propulsion systems for individual traffic. Their success in markets is dependent on the rapidly developing technology and thereby the positioning in competition with other propulsion concepts on the one hand, and the interaction with already mentioned strategies for hydrogen production and transport on the other. More than anywhere else major steps in improving energy density and costs that were unforeseeable some time ago have recently been made.,

Nevertheless, a consistent and secured supply to the end users with hydrogen is vital to reach a widespread use of this technology. Major industrialized western regions are already aiming at realizing the ideal of an emission free and individual traffic independent from oil, and take enormous effort in realizing this vision. The development of the infrastructure for the supply with hydrogen for the end users may as well be a chance for the Austrian Automotive suppliers as the formation of a network for supplying the production of fuel cell vehicles. The Californian  Hydrogen Highway and the German  Wasserstoff Autobahn are two examples to name.

Importance for the Technology-site Austria

Austria as Automotive supplier is well known for innovative drive trains on one hand and high tech components manufacturers and efficient production of niche models on the other. Even more respected R&D facilities of universities and beyond provide major potential in engineering competence.

In addition to these aspects, supportive actions as the development of a network between R&D facilities in transatlantic regions and the Austrian industry have to be taken to ensure access to the latest technologies and international knowledge.

Through these mentioned technology fields of the  Hydrogen Pathway 2020 , competence on a similar level as in the development of conventional combustion engines and all-wheel-drive systems can be reached.
Geschäftsführer und Gründer, Strategy Lab GmbH; Professor, Institut für Unternehmensführung und Entrepreneurship, Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz Abstract
Shell Energy Scenarios and the Role of Hydrogen

The ways in which we provide and use the energy the world depends on are bound to
change greatly over the next 50 years, in response to three fundamental challenges:
" giving all people access to the benefits of efficient, commercial energy from which nearly a fifth of us are still excluded,
" meeting the expanding and shifting energy needs of an urbanising world as economic development raises the living standards of billions of people, and
" preventing the pollution which damages health, blights environments and
threatens vital natural systems.
In Shell, we use long-term energy scenarios  looking out over 50 years  to help us understand how energy systems could change. But such scenarios are not an exercise in prophecy. Rather they are credible, alternative stories of the future, providing an analytical framework for the critical forces changing our environment.

Long Term Energy Scenarios
The demands of the future will be largely determined by resource constraints; our social and personal priorities; and new technology. All these in turn are shaped by demography, incomes, where people live, and the nature of the market. We have assessed possible responses to those drivers of demand and set out two alterative scenarios for the long term future of energy.
The two scenarios contrast an evolutionary progression from coal, to gas, to renewable energy forms (or possibly nuclear) against the potential for a hydrogen economy  supported by developments in fuel cells, advanced hydrocarbon technologies and carbon dioxide sequestration. They remind us that energy systems are dynamic, able to respond to changing conditions, choices and possibilities. The scenarios also highlight the impossibility of picking future technology winners with any certainty  particularly in what seems likely to be a highly innovative period in energy technology.

Dynamics As Usual
The first scenario, called Dynamics as Usual, shows a transition to sustainable and diverse energy sources but that transition is not smooth with many competing priorities and conflicting interests. The social priorities for  clean energy along with greater emphasis on energy security and sustainability are strong, prompting better use of existing technologies. This will see cars, prompted by Government setting a suitable incentive framework, becoming super efficient. At the same time, again in response to Government action, a range of renewable energy solutions will become viable and by 2050 could account for a third of energy supply.

Dynamics as Usual is a world where social priorities for  clean ,  secure and, ultimately,  sustainable energy shape the system. But it is a world of shifting social priorities, of conflicting interests, intense competition among suppliers, and a wide range of maturing and emerging technologies. The transition to a sustainable, but increasingly diverse and complex, energy system is far from smooth.

Spirit of the Coming Age
The other scenario we have called the Spirit of the Coming Age outlines a future where experimentation and innovation lead to technology breakthroughs in fuel cells and hydrogen storage, which provide the basis for transition to a hydrogen economy. In time, the internal combustion engine is eclipsed by fuel cell technology and crude oil based products are no longer the preferred fuel for transport. Renewables make slow progress and the primary focus is on rapid natural gas development and laying the foundations for a new hydrogen infrastructure.

Natural gas and then renewables provide the backbone of the new hydrogen economy.

Hydrogen and Fuel Cells
The two long term energy scenarios contrast an evolutionary progression to renewable energy forms (or possibly nuclear) against the potential for a hydrogen economy- supported by developments in fuel cells, advanced hydrocarbon technologies and carbon dioxide sequestration.
We believe hydrogen can become an important fuel in the energy mix in the coming years, along with cleaner traditional fuels. We will responsibly champion this development, as we believe it will create significant business opportunities and sustainable benefits in meeting the desires of our customers.
ðThis is a marathon and not a sprint, but the industry is well beyond the starting line. We expect that substantial markets for hydrogen-powered fuel-cell vehicles are most likely to start developing around 2015-2025, but this could be even sooner as remaining technical hurdles are challenging but not fundamental.
Actual timing will depend on the funding of the transition to mass production - which will depend on public policy developments including the right government incentives to vehicle and fuel-cell manufacturers, and fuel providers.
Along with benefits for individual consumers, hydrogen-powered fuel-cell applications bring public benefits through increasing the diversity of energy supply, reducing pollution from local emissions, and ultimately contributing to the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions to an extent that depends on the route of hydrogen production.
One of the attractions of hydrogen fuel is that it can be produced from a very wide range of primary energy sources, including natural gas, coal, and renewable sources such as solar and wind energy. As the hydrogen economy grows, we anticipate that the bulk of hydrogen will initially be produced from natural gas, with increasing sequestration of carbon dioxide over the course of time. Production routes from renewable energy will be introduced as these sources become economic in themselves.
Actually there already is a hydrogen economy and hydrogen infrastructure. 50 million tons are produced and consumed every year, mainly in industrial settings, such as in our own refineries for producing clean traditional fuels (we produce 7 thousand tons of hydrogen per day). The challenge is to bring the hydrogen into the everyday life of customers as they begin to use hydrogen-powered vehicles and other applications.
Shell s business is to bring energy to our customers. Shell is already the world s biggest fuels retailer, with over 50,000 retail sites worldwide, serving 20 million customers per day. Through the many activities of Shell Hydrogen, we are building extensive experience in delivering hydrogen as a fuel. So we are ready to meet the market.
It is Shell s firm belief that we now need to move from isolated demonstration projects with a research mindset, and instead create mini-networks of retail sites supplying small fleets of vehicles on a semi-commercial basis. We believe that public/business partnerships comprising governments, vehicle manufacturers, fleet companies, and energy companies should be formed to undertake such  Lighthouse Projects . We will join with governments and other businesses to lead such partnerships.
Distributed Generation Fuel Cells Technology Manager, US Department of Energy, Morgantown Abstract
FUEL CELLS AND OUR HYDROGEN ENERGY FUTURE

Hydrogen is the most abundant chemical-energy resource in the world, but unlike oil and natural gas it is an  energy carrier not an  energy source. There are no H2  wells available in the world. Further, we do not have a hydrogen infrastructure. The longest pipeline in the world is only 950 miles long. The largest plant operating today produces only 250 million standard cubic feet per day of H2. Therefore, the hydrogen infrastructure will have to be created and production will have to be increased an order of magnitude to meet DOE s 2015-18 projections. (1,2)

Hydrogen has historically been produced from fossil fuels and for the foreseeable future will continue to be so. The major source of H2 is steam reformation of natural gas. Therefore, improvements in the efficiency and cost of H2 production from natural gas are necessary in the near term. Gas separation membranes and membrane reactors based on ion conducting ceramics can provide the technological advance necessary to increase the efficiency and reduce the cost of H2 production from natural gas.(3-7)

However, other sources of H2 must be developed for the envisioned hydrogen economy, and coal provides one of the greatest U.S. domestic resource-based option. Coal is an abundant resource in the U.S. and for energy independence should be used as the primary energy resource. Over 50 percent of the electricity in the U.S. comes from coal, and coal use is increasing. FutureGen, the Integrated Hydrogen, Electric Power Production and Carbon Sequestration Research Initiative, is a partnership to design, build and operate a nearly emission-free, coal-fired electric and H2 production plant. No coal-to-gas plant in the world today is configured to optimize H2 production or to capture carbon. The FutureGen prototype plant would be the world s first. The 275-MW prototype plant will serve as a large scale engineering laboratory for testing new clean power, carbon capture, and coal-to-hydrogen technologies. It will pioneer advanced H2 production from coal, as well as capture and permanently sequester CO2. The captured CO2 will be separated from H2 by novel membranes currently under development. The FutureGen plant of the future can be based on coal gasification, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), and ion conducting membranes that will produce H2 and electricity with zero emissions and carbon sequestration, thereby, not contributing to global warming. The future production of H2 from fossil fuels requires advances in membranes and fuel cells. The importance and potential of ion conducting ceramics in SOFCs and ceramic membranes to hydrogen production, and their ultimate integration in a coal-based FutureGen plant. (8-10)

Fuel cell development is linked to fuel infrastructure. Today, we have conventional fuels, but the future promises a hydrogen economy. Low temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) make sense if there is a hydrogen infrastructure, but they are not efficient on conventional fuels. For SOFCs, conventional fuels can be used now, and hydrogen can be used in the future. Like all fuel cells, SOFCs will operate even better on hydrogen than conventional fuels. Therefore, the commercialization path for fuel cells is through portable and stationary markets using today s conventional fuels and then transportation markets using hydrogen. Each market offers progressively lower cost potential. It would appear that a path going through stationary for PEMFC must be with hydrogen. (11-13)

In the U.S., we let the market make eventual choice among fuel cell technology alternatives. However, that stock market peak investment era in alternative energy stocks is over for now, but the investment in transportation PEMFC developers continues at a high level. Less expensive materials, simple stack and system design, and high volume markets are the three criteria that must be met by a fuel cell system to compete in today s energy market. These criteria form the basis for the common sense goal of lowering fuel cell costs.

References:
1.  National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap, US DOE, November 2002.
2.  The Hydrogen Economy: Opportunities, Costs, Barriers and R&D Needs, National Research Council, 2004.
3. B. Lovins,  Twenty Hydrogen Myths, Rocky Mountain Institute, 20 June 2003.
4. J. Turner, M.C. Williams and K. Rajeshwar, Electrochemical Society Interface, 13-3, pp.24-30, (2004).
5. E. Wachsman, and M.C. Williams, Electrochemical Society Interface, 13-3, pp.32-37, (2004).
6. Reuel Shinnar,  The Hydrogen economy, fuel cells, and electric cars, Technology in Society, 25, pp. 455-476 (2003).
7.  Fuel Cell Report to Congress, ESSECS EE-1973, February 2003.
8. Report to Congress,  FutureGen Integrated Hydrogen, Electric Power Production and Carbon Sequestration Research Initiative, U.S. DOE, Office of Fossil Energy, March, 2004.
9. M. C. Williams,  DOE FE Distributed Generation Program, in Proceedings 28th International Conference on Advanced Ceramics and Composites, Cocoa Beach, FL, January 27, 2004.
10. M. C. Williams and S. C. Singhal,  The Hydrogen Economy and Solid Oxide Fuel Cells , in Proceedings, 15th World Hydrogen Energy Conference, Yokohama, Japan, June 27, 2004.
11. M. Williams, J. Strakey and W. Surdoval, 2004 Fuel Cell Seminar Abstracts, pp. 23-26, Courtesy Associates, Washington, DC, (2004).
12. J.P. Strakey, M. Williams, W. A. Surdoval, and S.C. Singhal, in Sixth European Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Forum Proceedings, M Mogensen, Editor, pp. 48-53. European Fuel Cell Forum, Lucerne, Switzerland, (2004).
13. M.C. Williams, B.R. Utz and K.M. Moore, Journal of Fuel Cell Science and Technology, 1-1, pp. 18-20, (2004).
Deputy Director General for Innovation and Telecommunication; Head of Directorate for Innovation, Austrian Federal Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technology, Vienna Chair
Deputy Head, Unit Mobility and Transport Technologies, Austrian Federal Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technology, Vienna Coordination

Carl-Peter FORSTER

Member of the Board, Geely Automobile and Volvo Cars Corporation, Hangzhou and Gothenburg; Chairman, London Taxi Company, Coventry; Chairman, Chemring Plc, Romsey

 Degrees in Economics and Aeronautical Engineering
 
1982-1986 Management Consultant, later Engagement Manager at McKinsey & Company
1986 BMW AG, various positions, the last one as Vice President responsible for the development of the Medium Class BMW model line
1996 Managing Director BMW South Africa (Pty) Ltd.
1999-2000 Member of the Board BMW AG, responsible for worldwide manufacturing
2001 Adam Opel AG, Managing Director and Vice President of General Motors Europe
2004 President and Chief Operation Officer of General Motors Europe
2006-2009 President and Chief Executive Officer of General Motors Europe, Group Vice President of General Motors and Member of GM's Global Automotive Strategy Board
2010 Tata Motors Ltd (including JaguarLandRover), Group Chief Executive Officer until 2011, Member of the Board until 2012
since 2013 Member of the Board of Volvo Cars Corporation, Gothenburg and Geely Automobile Holdings Ltd., Hong Kong

Dipl.-Ing. Peter HARBIG

Vice President Marketing & Sales, MAGNA STEYR Fahrzeugtechnik AG & Co KG, Graz

 Erste Tätigkeit bei der damaligen Thyssen Umformtechnik in Bielefeld, danach 20 Jahre beim deutschen Industriekonzern ThyssenKrupp in den Bereichen Entwicklung, Planung, Vertrieb im Chassis- und Fahrwerksbereich als Geschäftsführer Automotive Systems tätig.
1980-1984 Studium Werkstofftechnik an der Technischen Universität Osnabrück
seit 2004 für das Vorstandsressort Marketing & Sales verantwortlich

Dipl.-Ing. Gerald KILLMANN

General Manager, Powertrain Engineering Division Toyota Motor Engineering & Manufacturing Europe, Brussels

 Maschinenbaustudium an der TU Graz
1988-1992 Studienassistent und Vertragsassistent an der TU Graz am Institut für Verbrennungskraftmaschinen
1992-1996 Motoreningenieur Toyota Motor Marketing & Engineering, Belgien
1996-1998 Dieselmotorenentwicklung bei Toyota Motor Corporation, Japan
  bei Toyota Motor Engineering & Manufacturing Europe, Belgien
1998-2005 Department Manager, Deputy General Manager, General Manager Powertrain Engineering Division

Mag. Eduard MAINONI

Staatssekretär für Verkehr, Innovation und Technologie, Wien

 Studium der Rechtswissenschaften an der Universität Salzburg
1985 Mag. iur.
1985-1986 Rechtspraktikum am Bezirks- und Landesgericht Salzburg
1986-2001 Direktor des Österreichischen Wachdienstes ÖWD
1989-1991 Landesparteisekretär der FPÖ-Landesgruppe Salzburg
  Klubobmann des Gemeinderatklubs der FPÖ
1992-1999 Mitglied des Gemeinderates der Stadt Salzburg
1994-1998 Landesparteiobmann-Stellvertreter der FPÖ Salzburg
1999 Mitglied des Bundesrates
1999-2004 Abgeordneter zum Nationalrat
seit 2002 Mitglied der Geschäftsleitung des ÖWD
2002 Ordner des Nationalrates, Kultur- und Verkehrssprecher und Sprecher für Entwicklungszusammenarbeit EZA der Freiheitlichen Parlamentsfraktion
2004 Mitglied des Europarates, Straßburg
seit 2004 Staatssekretär im Bundesministerium für Verkehr, Innovation und Technologie

Dipl.-Ing. Dr. techn. Ernst PUCHER

ao.Univ.-Prof., Institut für Verbrennungskraftmaschinen und Kraftfahrzeugbau, Technische Universität Wien

 Diplom- und Doktoratsstudium Maschinenbau an der TU Wien
seit 1989 staatlich befugter und beeideter Zivilingenieur für Maschinenbau
1993 Habilitation für Verbrennungskraftmaschinen
seit 1997 ao.Univ.-Prof. an der TU Wien
seit 2003 Gastprofessor an der University of California at San Diego
seit 2004 Mitglied des Senats der TU Wien

Dipl.-Ing. Karl ROSE

Geschäftsführer und Gründer, Strategy Lab GmbH; Professor, Institut für Unternehmensführung und Entrepreneurship, Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz

1979-1984 Studium der Erdölwissenschaften, Montanuniversität Leoben
1985-1996 Petroleum Engineering, Royal Dutch Shell
1996-1998 Business Development Manager, Royal Dutch Shell
1998-1999 Vice President, Government Relations, Royal Dutch Shell
1999-2001 Business Intelligence, Royal Dutch Shell
2001-2007 Corporate Strategy, Royal Dutch Shell
2008-2010 Chief Strategist, Royal Dutch Shell
seit 2010 Director Policy and Scenarios, World Energy Council, London
seit 2010 Geschäftsführer und Gründer, Strategy Lab GmbH, Wien
seit 2010 Univ. Prof. für Strategisches Management und Angewandte Betriebswirtschaft, Karl-Franzens Universität Graz
seit 2011 Mitglied des Aufsichtsrats Energie Steiermark AG, Aufsichtsratsvorsitzender STEWEAG

PH. D. Engineering Mark C. WILLIAMS

Distributed Generation Fuel Cells Technology Manager, US Department of Energy, Morgantown

 Dr. Williams received his Ph.D. in Engineering in 1985 from the University of California at Berkeley. After graduation, he worked as a Research Engineer at the University of California at Berkeley where he supervised research of doctoral students in surface chemistry and separation science. Subsequently, he worked as a Research Engineer at AMOCO Production Company and at CONOCO, Inc., where he conducted theoretical modeling and experimental research into surfactant and colloidal chemistry. At present, he is the Distributed Generation Technology Manager at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), where he is responsible for budget, planning and outreach for the stationary power fuel cell program of the DOE's Office of Fossil Energy; this includes the world s largest high temperature fuel cell programs. Dr. Williams has been an invited lecturer in the fuel cell area at the Brookings Institution, and serves on the Editorial Board of the International Processing Journal. He assists in presenting fuel cell short courses, such as the Fuel Cell Technology Institute, and participates in many fuel cell forums in the U.S. and abroad. He has directed the development and publication of the internationally-acclaimed DOE Fuel Cell Handbook since 1994.

Mag. Ingolf SCHÄDLER

Deputy Director General for Innovation and Telecommunication; Head of Directorate for Innovation, Austrian Federal Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technology, Vienna

1978 Studienabschluss, Volkswirtschaft, Universität Wien
1978-1979 Studium, Internationale Politik, Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, Johns Hopkins Universität, Bologna
1979-1980 Forschungsassistent, Wiener Institut für Entwicklungsfragen, Wien
1981 Eintritt in den öffentlichen Dienst, Referent, Bundeskanzleramt, Wien
1993 Leiter, Abteilung für Technologiepolitik und -programme, Bundesministerium für öffentliche Wirtschaft und Verkehr, Wien
2003 Leiter, Bereich Innovation; stellvertretender Sektionsleiter, Bundesministerium für Verkehr, Innovation und Technologie, Wien
2010 Übernahme des Vorsitzes, EU-Joint Programming Initiative Urban Europe

Mag. Dr. Andreas DORDA

Deputy Head, Unit Mobility and Transport Technologies, Austrian Federal Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technology, Vienna

 Studies and Thesis in Chemistry in Vienna, Post-Doc at University Berkeley, Assistant at Institute for Phys. Chemistry
1992 Study, "Technological Characterisation and Ecological Assessment of Electric Vehicles", Academy of Sciences, Vienna
1992-1994 Project Manager, "Austrian Environmental Plan", Austrian Federal Ministry for Environment, Vienna
since 1994 Deputy Head of Unit, Mobility & Transport Technologies, Austrian Federal Ministry for Transport, Innovation and Technology, Vienna
1997-1999 Technology Foresight and Assessment, EC-Institute for Prospective Technological Studies, Sevilla
2006-2015 Managing Director, Austrian Agency for Alternative Propulsion Systems, Vienna

Technologiegespräche

Timetable einblenden

25.08.2005

10:00 - 12:00Technologiebrunch gesponsert durch die Tiroler ZukunftsstiftungSocial
13:00 - 14:00EröffnungPlenary
14:00 - 15:30Unsere ZukunftPlenary
16:00 - 18:00Wissenschaft und Forschung - eine globale Neuordnung der Standorte?Plenary
20:00 - 21:00SicherheitPlenary
21:30 - 23:45Abendempfang gesponsert durch Alcatel AustriaSocial

26.08.2005

09:00 - 15:00Arbeitskreis 01: Technologie- und Standortstrategien für UnternehmenBreakout
09:00 - 15:00Arbeitskreis 02: Elektronik im AutomobilBreakout
09:00 - 15:00Arbeitskreis 03: Die Wissenschaft in Produkten des täglichen GebrauchsBreakout
09:00 - 15:00Arbeitskreis 04: Sicherheit der EnergieversorgungBreakout
09:00 - 15:00Arbeitskreis 05: NanotechnologieBreakout
09:00 - 15:00Arbeitskreis 06: Vom Wissenschaftsjournal zur Schlagzeile: Wissenschaft und die MedienBreakout
09:00 - 15:00Arbeitskreis 07: Wasserstoff - Zukunft des Verkehrs?Breakout
09:00 - 15:00Arbeitskreis 08: Europäische Strategien für internationale ForschungskooperationenBreakout
09:00 - 15:00Arbeitskreis 09: Exzellenz - eine Frage des GeschlechtsBreakout
09:00 - 15:00Arbeitskreis 10: Converging technologiesBreakout
16:00 - 16:45Zusammenarbeit Universität und Industrie - Die atlantische SituationPlenary
16:45 - 17:30Zusammenarbeit Universität und Industrie - Die österreichische LösungPlenary
17:30 - 18:00Zusammenarbeit Universität und Industrie - Politische SchlussfolgerungenPlenary
18:00 - 20:00Empfang gesponsert durch Land NiederösterreichSocial
20:00 - 21:00Wissenschaft und Technik für Venedig - Konzepte zur Bewahrung des WeltkulturerbesPlenary

26.08.-27.08.2005

Junior AlpbachBreakout

27.08.2005

09:00 - 10:30Politik und WissenschaftPlenary
10:30 - 11:30Wissenschaftliche ExzellenzPlenary
12:00 - 12:15Alpbach 2005 - Resümee Junior AlpbachPlenary
12:15 - 13:00Reflexionen und PerspektivenPlenary
13:00 - 14:30Schlussempfang gesponsert durch Microsoft ÖsterreichSocial