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Eigen- und Fremdbilder in Geschichte und Gegenwart

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Erwin-Schrödinger-Saal
Plenary / Panel
German and English language

Vortragende

Leiter, Abteilung Osteuropäische Geschichte und Arbeitsstelle Historische Stereotypenforschung, Institut für Geschichte, Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg Abstract
Walter Lippman, der 1922 zum ersten Mal das Wort Stereotyp in seinem heutigen Sinne benutzte, definierte Stereotypen als  pictures in our head . Daß Wahrnehmung immer typisierend auftritt, ist ein Allgemeinplatz; aus dieser Erkenntnis ergibt sich die Frage: Was macht eine Verallgemeinerung zum Stereotyp?
Zwei Aspekte gilt es hier zu beachten: zum einen die hohe emotionale Aufgeladenheit von Stereotypen, und zum anderen ihre Identitätsrelevanz. Daher dient das Fremdbild weitgehend der emotionalen Verankerung des Eigenbilds, und zwar sowohl als Gegenbild des Selbstbildes als auch als Rechtfertigung des eigenen Handelns und Selbstverständnisses. Das läßt sich an Osteuropa-Stereotypen ebenso wie an heutigen Islam-Stereotypen exemplifizieren. Das Wahrnehmungsproblem läßt sich kaum mir den Kategorien "falsch" oder "richtig" lösen. Stereotype eliminieren zu wollen ist ein vergebliches Unterfangen, wichtiger ist es, den Umgang mit ihnen zu zivilisieren.
Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kosovo, Prishtina
Director, International Cultural Centre; Professor of European Studies, Jagiellonian University, Krakow Abstract
History teaches us that international relationships depend largely on our ideas about other people. These ideas are often based on stereotypes. Stereotypes are beliefs nurtured by people which are not corroborated by practice. Despite this, we are reluctant to get rid of them. Such generalisations are primarily a way to  simplify the reality. National stereotypes are generated by tensions and constant competition. The frustrations and aggression that are born transform into stereotypes and prejudice. According to Ambrose Bierce,  prejudice is a wandering opinion without visible proof of its confirmation."
Gordon Allport determined stereotypisation as  the right of least effort , where a man, otherwise lazy, chooses the least laborious method. He creates simple convictions, damning in their superficiality. These convictions exempt us from thinking of what the world is truly like. In particular, this refers to national stereotypes. Once formulated, they are resistant to changes under the impact of new information. Negative national stereotypes persist despite any change of relations between neighbouring countries. Can this artificial world of divisions be changed today? Can constant contemplation of our ideas of a stranger/ enemy change our stereotype of a neighbour? Can European integration, liberty and speed of travelling without borders, a remapping of Europe and globalisation, influence the change of national stereotypes which have been shaped through a long historical process?
Executive Director, Center for Democracy and Reconciliation in South East Europe, Thessaloniki Abstract
The physical wars of 1990s which engulfed the whole of the former Yugoslavia were preceded by a war of words which was waged on the pages of newspapers and news broadcasts on radio and TV programmes. This war of words was every bit as merciless as the one that followed, if not even worse. It deliberately played on the prejudices which existed between the different (and soon to become warring) nations of the former Yugoslavia.
The media as a rule (with a VERY SMALL number of exceptions) not only supported to ruling nationalist elites in Belgrade, Zagreb, Sarajevo, Ljubljana& but played a crucial role in pouring petrol on embers left over from World War II and using the stereotypes from that era to install fear of  the other in their respective nations. To me, as a journalist, it was almost unbelievable how ready my colleagues were to play on the worst stereotypes to actually promote the bloodshed that was about to be unleashed. In many ways, they played an important part in making sure that their predictions of the worst possible events actually DID happen.
And once the blood started to pour, they again used the same stereotypes to justify the killing done by their own side, by using the same arguments to dehumanise, to demonise  the enemy and at the same time justify whatever atrocities were committed by their own side.
Austrian Ambassador to the United Kingdom, London Chair

Dr. Hans Henning HAHN

Leiter, Abteilung Osteuropäische Geschichte und Arbeitsstelle Historische Stereotypenforschung, Institut für Geschichte, Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg

 Studium in Köln und Freiburg
1976 Promotion Köln
 Vertretungsprofessuren in Heidelberg, Warschau, Bielefeld, Köln und Göttingen
1986 Habilitation Köln
seit 1992 Professor für Moderne Osteuropäische Geschichte mit dem Schwerpunkt Polen an der Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg
2000 Gastprofessor an der Jagiellonischen Universität Kraków

Dr. Enver HOXHAJ

Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kosovo, Prishtina

 Enver Hoxhaj studied at the Vienna University from 1994 to 2000, where he received his PhD in History, while also serving as Fellow at Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Human Rights. Since then he was as Associate Professor at the Department of Political Science, University of Vienna. From 2003 to 2004 he has been visiting Research Fellow of the London School of Economics, Centre for Study of the Global Governance. His publications on Southeast European subjects include studies and papers on history and politics of ethnic conflicts, nationalism, human rights violations, international intervention and governance, which have been published in different western journals and books.
 Currently Enver Hoxhaj is the Minister of Education, Science and Technology of the Republic of Kosova and a Member of the Assembly of Kosova.

Ph.D. Jacek PURCHLA

Director, International Cultural Centre; Professor of European Studies, Jagiellonian University, Krakow

 PhD degree (1983) and habilitation (1991) at the Jagiellonian University. Professor of humanities since 1994. Full professor of humanities since 1997. He is head of the Urban Development Department at the Krakow University of Economics and head of the Chair of European Heritage, Faculty of International and Political Studies at the Jagiellonian University. His areas of research are urban development, social history and art history of the 19th and 20th centuries, as well as the theory and protection of cultural heritage. In 1990-1991 he was vice-president of the city of Krakow. Since 1991 the organiser and director of the International Cultural Centre in Krakow. Professor (1995-2001) in the Institute of the Art History. Professor in the European Studies Chair (2001-2005).

Nenad SEBEK

Executive Director, Center for Democracy and Reconciliation in South East Europe, Thessaloniki

1975-1986 Journalist, presenter and editor, Radio Belgrade
1986-1991, 1994 Producer, Senior Producer in Yugoslav (later South Slavonic) BBC World Service
1992-1993 Special Reporter for the former Yugoslavia BBC World Service
1995 News Producer, BBC World Service Newsroom
1996-1999 South East European Correspondent, based in Zagreb then Belgrade, "The World"
1998-1999 Director of Media Focus, a media monitoring project funded by the EU and the UK government covering the main media in Belgrade, Pristina, Podgorica and Novi Sad, IWPR (Institute for War and Peace Reporting)
1999-2002 Moscow Correspondent, The World (A co-production of the BBC World Service, WGBH and PRI)
2004-2007 Adjunct Assistant Professor in Politics and Journalism, ACT (American College of Thessaloniki)
since 2007 Center for Democracy and Reconciliation in Southeast Europe, Thessaloniki

Mag. Dr. Emil BRIX

Austrian Ambassador to the United Kingdom, London

1975-1979 Studium der Geschichte und Anglistik, Universität Wien
1979-1980 Forschungsprojekt "Soziale und kulturelle Konflikte in der Donaumonarchie"
seit 1982 Österreichischer Diplomatischer Dienst
1982-1984 Bundesgeschäftsführer des Management Clubs des Österreichischen Wirtschaftsbundes
1984-1986 Klubsekretär im Parlamentsklub der Österreichischen Volkspartei
1986-1989 Leiter des Ministerbüros im Bundesministerium für Wissenschaft und Forschung
1990-1995 Generalkonsul der Republik Österreich in Krakau/Polen
1995-1999 Direktor des Österreichischen Kulturinstitutes in London
2000-2003 Leiter der Abteilung "Durchführung kultureller und wissenschaftlicher Veranstaltungen im Ausland" (Gesandter) in der Kulturpolitischen Sektion des Bundesministeriums für auswärtige Angelegenheiten
2002-2010 Botschafts Leiter der Kulturpolitische Sektion im Bundesministerium für europäische und internationale Angelegenheiten
2007, 2008 Präsident von EUNIC (European Union National Institutes of Culture)
seit 2010 Botschafter der Republik Österreich im Vereinigten Königreich Großbritannien und Nordirland

Politische Gespräche

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