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Grenzen(los): Die perforierte Landschaft

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Liechtenstein-Hayek-Saal
Plenary / Panel
German and English language

Was bedeutet das Ausfransen von Städten für ihre BewohnerInnen und die städtische Infrastruktur? Was heißt es für das Bauen, Wohnen und Leben in dieser Region? Welche Rahmenbedingungen kann Raumordnungspolitik setzen, und welche Wirkungen haben unterschiedliche Modelle der Unternehmensbesteuerung auf die Siedlungsentwicklung?

Vortragende

Associate Professor of Landscape Architecture, Graduate School of Design, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA Abstract
Sprawl as Strategy
Demystifying Decentralization through a Review of the "World Problématique" and the Club of Rome's 1972 "Limits to Growth"

Pierre Bélanger
Associate Professor of Landscape Architecture
Harvard Graduate School of Design

Currently, global densities, overall, are in decline, as world populations are increasing. The net effect is a gradual reduction in the spatial density of urban areas and an increase in the size of the footprint beyond the legislative boundaries of cities. As populations migrate for a range of economic, political and social reasons, urbanfootprints are naturally sprawling. New geographic zones, territorial regions and infrastructural configurations currently in formation simply do not conform to our traditional understanding of urbanism, that is mainly based in cities and the concentration of populations. These ground conditions contradict the common assumption that compactness, verticality and high density are sustainable forms of urban design capable of controlling the footprint of urban dynamics.

Synonymous with centralization, the perceived benefit of compactness has persistently received support by proponents of environmental protection and sustainable development. At the core of this assumption is the characterization of urban growth as a problem that should be regulated and restricted. With techno-scientific instruments of zoning, boundary demarcation and density regulation, the practice of urban planning was professionalized in the 20th century to become a large techno-scientific discipline largely premised on the control, optimization and legislation of growth.

Yet, for the most part, some of the underlying precepts of urban planning – compactness, footprint, density – are seldom revisited. In the current context of concerns for the environment, the singularadherence to the concept of carrying capacity – from compact footprint to resource conservation - as sustainable spatial factor in the discourse on sustainability remains unchallenged.

How can we think beyond limits, footprints or boundaries? How can we change our notions of carrying capacities? Can we move beyond the notion of spatial compactness and control through planning? Instead, can we explore urban processes through distributed structures, diffuse patterns, fluid formats or flexible morphologies that work with the processes of decentralization rather than fight it?
As a counter position to the city, a geographic lens on urbanization opens a horizon on patterns and processes of spatial, social,technological, political, and ecological change. Revisiting the critical difference in systems thinking of the 1960s and 70s that underlie the debate between compact form and decentralization processes, this geographic optic proposes a comparison between two fundamentally opposing spatial models to characterize these processes: “closed system dynamics” from the engineer Jay W. Forrester and “open systems ecologies” from ecologist Howard T. Odum.

Starting with Forrester’s “World Model” and the formulation of the Club of Rome’s “World Problématique” in The Limits of Growth (1972)—a milestone in environmental literature, the retroactive comparison of systemic views during the invention of the notion of the “environment” sheds light on the understanding of urbanization beyond the centralized notion of compact growth. This alternativecan help redefine urbanization as an open and fluid system, a notion that provides a more complex, more nuanced, and more flexible characterization of urbanization, where underlying processes of decentralization are revealed as strategy for responding to the predominant challenges of our time ranging population migration, changing climates, energy economies and resource flows.
Professor for Taxation and Ecological Economics, Environmental Campus Birkenfeld, University of Applied Sciences Trier, Birkenfeld Abstract
Siedlungsstrukturen lassen sich kaum gezielt durch die Unternehmensbesteuerung beeinflussen. Zur Unterstützung nachhaltiger und kompakter Siedlungsformen viel geeigneter ist die Grundsteuer. Allerdings kann die Grundsteuer niemals eine gute Planung ersetzen, sondern nur die  Compliance erhöhen. Dies geschieht am besten durch die Besteuerung des Bodens und seiner Erträge (bzw. Renten;  unverbundene Bemessungsgrundlage ), nicht aber durch die Miterfassung der aufstehenden Gebäude und Kapitalgüter ( verbundene Bemessungsgrundlage ). Schließlich erfordern unterschiedliche siedlungspolitische Ziele (z.B. Beschränkung der Zersiedelung und Eindämmung der Versiegelung) auch unterschiedliche Instrumente (Tinbergen-Regel).
Head of Unit, Bavarian State Ministry for the Economy, Infrastructure, Transport and Technology, Munich Abstract
Die Ansprüche an die Nutzung von Flächen nehmen zu. Freiräume für Mensch und Natur stehen unter einem hohen Konkurrenzdruck. Die Perforation der Landschaft durch den Erhalt und Ausbau von Infrastrukturen oder Wohn- und Gewerbegebieten schreitet voran. Die Politik ist gefordert, Nutzungskonflikte aufzugreifen und Leitbilder, konkrete Vorgaben oder Spielregeln für die Lösung dieser Konflikte zu bestimmen, also Raumordnung zu betreiben. Bayern hat seine Raumordnung einer Gesamtreform unterworfen. Zielsetzung der zukünftigen Vorgaben ist eine maßvolle Flächeninanspruchnahme indem insbesondere kompakte Siedlungsbereiche und damit kostengünstige Versorgungsstrukturen gewährleistet werden. Im Fokus stehen dabei Festlegungen zum Flächensparen, zur Innenentwicklung von Siedlungsgebieten und zur Vermeidung von Zersiedelung.
Professor for Urban Sociology, Institute of Sociology, Chemnitz University of Technology, Chemnitz Abstract
'Perforation' verweist auf Löcher in einem Zusammenhang. Im Kontext des Themas wird die Durchlöcherung verbunden mit Verlusten, die von verschiedenen TeilnehmerInnen urbaner Ereignisse und Zusammenhänge registriert werden. Die aktuellen Strategien für 'Reparatur' und Empowerment werden top down und bottom up entwickelt.
Editor-in-Chief, NZZ Chair

Prof. Pierre BELANGER

Associate Professor of Landscape Architecture, Graduate School of Design, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA

2001-2013 Director, The Urban Ocean Project, OPSYS, US-Canada
2009-2014 Associate Professor of Landscape Architecture, Harvard Graduate School of Design, US
2001-2009 Assistant Professor of Landscape Architecture, University of Toronto, Canada

Prof.Dr. MBA Dirk LÖHR

Professor for Taxation and Ecological Economics, Environmental Campus Birkenfeld, University of Applied Sciences Trier, Birkenfeld

 Full-time profession:
1990-1992 Scientific Assistant, Chair of Social Economics, Ruhr-University of Bochum
1992-1995 Financial Manager, IFA Hotel & Touristik AG, Duisburg
1995-1997 Chief Department Manager, Deutsche Bahn AG, Frankfurt
1997-2001 Professor for Accounting and Taxation, ECB - Environmental Campus Birkenfeld
2001-2002 Visiting Professor (economics), University Cottbus
 Side-jobs:
since 2003 Professor for Taxation and Ecological Economics, Trier University of Applied Sciences, ECB - Environmental Campus Birkenfeld
since 2001 Tax Advisor, Schlatter, Heidelberg
since 2006 Member of the Real Estate Assessment Board, Birkenfeld
since 2005 Lecturer, Sprengnetter Academy, Real Estate Assessment, Sinzig
2009-2012 Consultant, GIZ - German international Cooperation, Phnom Pen

Dr. Karl SCHUMACHER

Head of Unit, Bavarian State Ministry for the Economy, Infrastructure, Transport and Technology, Munich

1987-1992 Law Studies, Faculty of Law, Universität Regensburg
1992-1994 Junior Lawyer, Higher Regional Court, Nuremberg
1995-2000 State Consultant, Bavarian State Ministry for Economic Affairs, Transport and Technology, Munich
2000-2001 General Secretary, Business Incubator for New Media, Unterföhring
2001-2005 Minister´s Personal Advisor, Bavarian State Ministry for Economic Affairs, Infrastructure, Transport and Technology, Munich
2006-2009 Head of Unit "Research and Development", Bavarian State Ministry for Economic Affairs, Infrastructure, Transport and Technology, Munich
since 2009 Head of Unit "Spatial Law and Settlement Structure", Bavarian State Ministry for Economic Affairs, Infrastructure, Transport and Technology, Munich

Dr. Christine WEISKE

Professor for Urban Sociology, Institute of Sociology, Chemnitz University of Technology, Chemnitz

1973-1979 Studium der Philosophie und Soziologie an der Martin-Luther-Universität Halle
1980-1992 wissenschaftliche Mitarbeiterin an der HAB Weimar (heute Bauhaus Universität im Bereich der Stadt- und Regionalsoziologie)
1984 Promotion in Kultursoziologie an der Universität Jena
1990 Habilitation in Wissenschaftstheorie und -geschichte an der Universität Halle
1992-1994 wiss. Mitarbeiterin in der Fakultät Raumplanung der Universität Dortmund
seit 1994 Professorin für Soziologie des Raumes am Institut für Soziologie and der TU Chemnitz

Mag.Jur. Anita ZIELINA

Editor-in-Chief, NZZ

2000-2004 Freelance Journalist, Vienna
2004-2008 Reporter Politics & Education, derStandard.at, Vienna
2008-2011 Editor Politics & Education, derStandard.at, Vienna
since 2008 Trainer & Consultant, Vienna
2009-2011 Lecturer, University of Applied Sciences Vienna
2011-2012 Knight Fellow, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA

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