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06: Creativity – fuel for the knowledge society?

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Hauptschule
Breakout / Working Group
english language

More and more, education is being considered as an agent for conveying innovation- and creativity-fostering key competences, from small children to adult learners. What do we mean when we speak about creativity? Can creativity really be fostered specifically and how can it be done? Apart from interdisciplinary state-of-the-art research the workshop will discuss the relation of creativity and its promotion in education/schools.
In order to strengthen growth and employment it will be crucial to translate creative processes into innovations. Which connection is there between education and the ability to innovate? How important are New Media today for learning, creativity development and the capacity to innovate?

Speakers

Bundesministerin für Unterricht, Kunst und Kultur der Republik Österreich, Wien Introduction
Ambassador of the European Year of Creativity and Innovation; Founder, The World Centre for New Thinking, Malta
Parlow-Solomon Professor on Aging; Professor of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences; Director, UCLA Center on Aging; Director, Division of Geriatric Psychiatry; Director, Memory & Aging Research Center, Jane & Terry Semel institute for Neuroscience & Human Behavior and the David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles (CA) Abstract
The high-tech revolution has had an impact on creativity - our ability to generate new ideas as well as effectively execute them. True creative contributions are not just interesting and new, but they have utility. Recent studies have found that a tendency to be open to new ideas predicts higher levels of creativity but baseline intelligence does not. Creativity often does not usually occur with an instantaneous flash of brilliance - it tends to develop over time after a series of insights that build upon one another and often involves hard work and collaboration with others. Many medical and scientific innovators agree that discoveries often stem from collaborations among several individuals with different backgrounds and specialties. One of the benefits of Internet technology is that it allows people to connect with like-minded people at any time, any place. Architects, musicians, visual artists, and writers who have worked with new digital technology, have benefited from the innovative ways it provides them to pursue their creative abilities.
There are some, however, who believe that too much technological stimulation may hamper imagination. By restricting your interactions to only individuals who share your point of view, you may limit your communication with others outside your field of expertise, which may hinder innovation. It takes a diversity of experiences - not just staring at a computer screen - to spark imagination and help discover the random analogies that can trigger an original idea worth pursuing. In the digital age, face-to-face and technological communications are important for maintaining and nurturing our creative instincts. Brain imaging studies suggest certain frontal neural circuits control several aspects of creative thinking. This discussion will highlight such issues and describe several strategies for nurturing creativity in the high-tech age.
Professor, Head, Department of Applied Psychology: Work, Education, Economy, Faculty of Psychology, University of Vienna Abstract
The psychological field of creativity research is concerned with the question of the emergence of innovative ideas, products and services. Early research phases are dominated by a theoretical model based on personality characteristics proposes by Guilford (1950) which understands creativity as a set of personal traits measured by psychological tests or questionnaires. However, as results show no prognosis from test values on the creation of innovative products and performances is possible. Later approaches see creativity not only as an individual, but also as a social phenomenon. Particular emphasis concerning the development and establishment of creative products is placed on the relevance of macro-conditions as social, cultural, and political influences. A prominent example of such approaches is the Investment Theory advanced by Sternberg and Lubart (1991). According to this theory persons invest their creative potential into creative projects when they perceive that the resulting product has a good chance of being recognized or may generate a "profit". However, this theory as well as similar other ones has some weaknesses in explaining the emergence of creative ideas or products.
The most comprehensive and consequent models proposed to explain creativity are the systems perspective (Csikszentmihalyi, 1999) and the social-constructionist approach (Westmeyer, 1998). According to these models the starting point for determining creativity lies not in the person but rather in the product itself. Whether a product is creative or not is determined by its evaluation; in other words: creativity results from the interaction among the person who creates a product, the field which is entitled to evaluate it and the domain to which the person wants access for the product. Hence, the relevant field as part of the society (in science e.g., journal editors, reviewers of project proposals, etc.) is, in a way, "authorized" by the society to judge and reward contributions in a defined domain. The interaction between individual, field and domain is not fixed. It is subject to cultural and temporal influences. As a consequence, creativity cannot be seen as a personality characteristic but has to be defined with regard to a certain domain. Therefore, psychology cannot define and investigate creativity itself but characteristics and competencies which are predictors of creative performances.
In the first part of the presentation a brief overview about the different theories and models on creativity are given. The second part presents an example on how creative performance can be predicted by defined competencies and characteristics and how they can be measured. The example focuses on drawing performance. Finally, consequences for the promotion of creativity with a specific focus on school education are discussed.
Artistic Director, Ars Electronica Linz GmbH, Linz Abstract
Wie kann das Zusammenspiel von Kunst und Kreativwirtschaft funktionieren.

Eine durchaus bemerkenswerte Karriere hat das Wort Kreativität in letzter Zeit hingelegt. Galt es lange nur dem Bereich der Kunst und ihrer amateurhaften Nachbarbereiche zugeordnet so ist es mittlerweile sogar zum offiziellen Motto der EU geworden. 2009 ist das europäische Jahr für Kreativität und Innovation: "Da die EU immer stärker auf eine wissensbasierte Wirtschaft baut, muss sie ihr Kreativitätspotential entwickeln" heißt es da und das "die Europäer lernen müssen sich Veränderungen zu öffnen und für unterschiedliche Strategien empfänglich zu sein." Kreativität ist zum Hoffnungsträger für die ökonomische Zukunftsfähigkeit des alten Kontinents geworden.

Im Wissen darum, dass die eingetretenen Pfade der Entwicklung weder gesellschaftlich noch ökonomisch wirklich zukunftsfähig sein werden, geht der suchende Blick vermehrt über Disziplingrenzen hinaus und so ist seit einiger Zeit schon ein inniges Umwerben dieses Begriffes in Gang gekommen. Allerorts bemühen sich nun Wirtschaftsförderer und Standortstrategen darum und von Europa bis Asien sprießen Creative Industry Programme aus dem Boden. Um dem ganzen Substanz oder wenigstens Quantität zu geben wird dann gleich alles mögliche in den Topf der Kreativwirtschaft geworfen und plötzlich ist der Mechaniker der die Druckmaschine repariert auch schon Teil der stolz gezeigten Kreativ-Wirtschaft-Statistik. Es ist aber zweifelsohne auch eine neue Basis für den Austausch zwischen Kunst und Wirtschaft entstanden, an der die Kunst mit großem Selbstvertrauen auftreten kann.

Nachdem uns Richard Florida (1) schon vor Jahren gezeigt hat, dass Toleranz und Offenheit einer Gesellschaft mit dem Stellenwert korrelieren, den sie der Kreativität beimisst und der Zahl der Menschen die in diesem Bereichen tätig sind und auch mit der Anzahl neuer Patente, ist daraus ja schon fast ein Zukunftsrezept entstanden. Kreativität diese schwer fassbare Fähigkeit des Menschen wird als Strategie als methodisches Werkzeug für die Erneuerung, die Innovation gesehen.
Nicht zu Unrecht, denn Innovation findet immer nur statt, wenn Dinge und Ideen neu gedacht, neu miteinander verbunden werden. Dafür muss Gewohntes aufgegeben oft auch demontiert werden, d.h. der Kreativität die hier eigentlich gesucht wird, wohnt immer auch etwas Subversives inne und sie setzt die Bereitschaft voraus das Risiko eines ungewissen Ausgangs in Kauf zu nehmen.

Nun fällt aber Kreativität nicht vom Himmel wie der Regen und man kann sie auch nicht so einfach aus dem Boden pumpen wie Öl und Gas. Es ist eine Ressource die Wachsen muss, und das Einzige was man tun kann um dieses Wachstum zu fördert ist, den Boden aufzubereiten, zu düngen, ein förderliches Umfeld zu schaffen und dann darauf zu warten.
Es geht also immer um eine Investition in die Zukunft, eine Saat deren Ernte erst in Jahren eingefahren werden kann und deren Natur es ist, dass die Pflänzchen die darauf wirklich sprießen unter Umständen ganz andere sind, als die die man erwartet hat. Und so schließt sich der Kreis, denn gerade deswegen braucht es große Felder und davon viele, an möglichst vielen Orten, denn es sind gerade diese unerwarteten Outputs auf die wir hoffen müssen, diese neuen Ideen und bislang nicht gemachten Kombinationen, die wir als Basis für Innovation brauchen. Für technologisch ökonomische Innovation, wie für die ebenso dringend benötigten gesellschaftlichen Innovationen.

Will man konkrete Maßnahmen benennen und auf den Weg bringen, so sind einige wichtige Punkte zu beachten:

In der ersten Euphorie der Kreativwirtschaft kam es zu vorschnellen Rückschlüssen auf die Rolle die KünstlerInnen dabei einnehmen sollten. Natürlich ist es naheliegend von der Kunst hier einen Beitrag bzw. eine Wirkung zu erwarten und in vielen Bereichen der künstlerischen Arbeit gibt es diese direkte Auswirkung auf ein kreativitätsförderndes Umfeld ohnedies. Aber es ist auch legitim, dass sich KünstlerInnen oft reserviert zeigen, wenn man sie zu Kreativitäts-NachhilfelehrerInnen umschulen will und die Kunst plötzlich vor den Karren der Wirtschaft gespannt werden soll.

Die Hoffnung dass sich die Kunst in Sog dieses Creativity-Hypes bald ganz selbst ernähren könnte ist genauso naiv wie der umgekehrte Versuch daraus gleich Anrechte auf Mittel aus der Wirtschaftsförderung ableiten zu wollen.
Will man Kreativität fördern braucht es eine Allianz zwischen Kunst, Wirtschaft und der öffentlichen Hand, aber sie wird auch weiterhin eine ungleiche bleiben. Das ist gar nicht schlecht nur sollte man sich dessen immer bewusst sein, wenn man in diesem Dreieck agiert.

Es kling einfach und ist es auch: Um Kreativität zu fördern ist es notwendig einen möglichst hohen Anteil an Kunst und künstlerischen Arbeitens zu schaffen und diesen nicht in elitären Institutionen zu verstecken, sondern in jeder erdenklichen Form in den Alltag unserer Gesellschaft zu integrieren. Dafür brauchen wir auch neue Kultureinrichtungen und ein neues Selbstverständnis in den etablierten Institutionen.

Es braucht mehr Aufmerksamkeit auf innovative Kunstformen, aber ebenso braucht es innovative Maßnahmen (Veranstaltungen, Kommunikationsformen), die auch das Potential haben, durch die künstlerische Arbeit das Interesse und die Bereitschaft (Offenheit) für neue Dinge in einer breiteren Bevölkerung zu schaffen.

Wir müssen vor allem Schwerpunkte bei der Kreativitätsförderung für Kinder und Jugendliche setzen. Hier ist an den Schulen sehr viel zu tun. Kreativität ist nicht die Fähigkeit ein schönes Bild zu malen, es ist eine Haltung, die von Offenheit, Neugierde und dem Drang sich auszudrücken geprägt ist, und diese Lebenshaltung gilt es zu fördern um jene Energien, Initiativen und Freiräume zu schaffen in denen sich neue Ideen entfalten können.

Und wir brauchen Geduld, Weitblick und viel Treibstoff.


(1) Europe in the Creative Age, Richard Florida und Irene Tinagli, 2004
Researcher, Centre for Research on Lifelong Learning, Institute for the Protection and the Security of the Citizen, European Commission - Joint Research Centre, Ispra Abstract
Can creativity be measured? Can it be measured across cultures? This presentation will address the challenge of measuring creativity, and doing so across cultures. Measurement issues are necessary if we aim at having knowledge-based policies in education and training that effectively promote creativity. In addition, the analysis of measurement approaches to creativity can provide a working definition of creativity, by looking into commonalities in the different approaches. There are many different fields and tools studying and measuring different aspects associated with creativity. In general terms, it is possible to talk about two broad approaches for creativity measurement that have become prominent in the research field: an "aggregate approach" and an "individual approach". The individual approach has its roots in psychology, and can be based, more or less, on traditional psychometric models. The aggregate approach comprises a set of different disciplines looking into aspects in society that are associated with creativity. The presentation draws from a recent international conference organized by the Centre for Research on Lifelong Learning (CRELL) and the Directorate General of Education and Culture on the measurement of creativity that took place in Brussels (http://crell.jrc.ec.europa.eu/creativitydebate/).
Professor and Head, Research Centre Education-Generation-Lifecourse, University of Innsbruck Chair
Referentin, Sektion I - "Allgemein bildendes Schulwesen; Qualitätsentwicklung und -sicherung; Pädagogische Hochschulen", Bundesministerium für Unterricht, Kunst und Kultur, Wien Coordination

Dr. Claudia SCHMIED

Bundesministerin für Unterricht, Kunst und Kultur der Republik Österreich, Wien

1983 Studium mit dem Doktorat, Wirtschaftsuniversität Wien
1983 Firmenkundenbetreuerin, "Investkredit"
1995 Leiterin der Abteilung Unternehmensfinanzierungen
1997 Wirtschaftspolitische Beraterin, Kabinett des Bundesministers und Staatssekretärs für Finanzen
2000 In der "Investkredit" zurück
2004 Vorstandsmitglied der "Kommunalkredit Austria"
seit 2005 Vorstandsmitglied "Dexia Kommunalkredit Bank" sowie Mitglied des Aufsichtsrates in mehreren Unternehmen
seit 2007 Bundesministerin
seit 2008 In der Regierung von Bundeskanzler Werner Faymann als Bundesministerin für Unterricht, Kunst und Kultur

MD Ph.D. Edward DE BONO

Ambassador of the European Year of Creativity and Innovation; Founder, The World Centre for New Thinking, Malta

 Was a Rhodes Scholar at Oxford, is an M.D. and Ph.D., and has held appointments at Oxford and Cambridge Universities, the University of London, and Harvard University.
 Has been called  the father of thinking about thinking and is the world s leading authority on conceptual thinking as the driver of organizational innovation, strategic leadership, individual creativity, and problem solving. Since 1970 his exclusive tools and methods have brought astonishing results to organizations large and small worldwide and to individuals from a wide range of cultures, educational backgrounds, occupations, and age groups. His instruction in thinking has been sought by many business organisations over the years, including: IBM, Prudential, Shell, Exxon, NTT, Nokia, Bank of America, Union Bank of Switzerland, GM etc. Unusual clients include the Australian national cricket team. His methods are taught in thousands of schools around the world and are mandatory on the curriculum in many countries. Facilitated Thinking sessions for Noble Laureates in South Korea in the early nineties.
 Dr. de Bono has been credited with producing thinking techniques that are simple, practical, and powerful. His work, concepts and application represented by Lateral Thinking, Parallel Thinking, 6 Thinking Hats, CoRT programme, the L-game, DATT (Direct Attention Thinking Tools), Simplicity and Six Value Medals have become an integral part of World s Universal Business and Management Literature. They are now being implemented in organizations of all sizes because of their simplicity and their power to change thinking behaviour, increase productivity, foster team-building, and evoke profitable innovation.

MD Gary SMALL

Parlow-Solomon Professor on Aging; Professor of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences; Director, UCLA Center on Aging; Director, Division of Geriatric Psychiatry; Director, Memory & Aging Research Center, Jane & Terry Semel institute for Neuroscience & Human Behavior and the David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles (CA)

1969-1973 BA in Biology, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA)
1977-1978 MD, University of Southern California School of Medicine
1977-1978 Internship, Internal Medicine, Children's Hospital & Adult Med. Center, S.F., CA
1978-1981 Psychiatry Residency, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA
1969-1973 BA in Biology, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA)
1977-1978 MD, University of Southern California School of Medicine
1977-1978 Internship, Internal Medicine, Children's Hospital & Adult Med. Center, S.F., CA
1978-1981 Psychiatry Residency, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA
1978-1981 Clinical Fellow in Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School
1981-1983 Geriatric Psychiatry Fellow, UCLA School of Medicine
since 1983 Assistant ( 83) to Associate ( 90) to Full Professor ( 95) of Psychiatry, UCLA
1988-2002 Director, UCLA Geriatric Psychiatry and Psychology Fellowship Program
1997-2007 Director, Imaging Core, UCLA Alzheimer Disease Center
since 2007 Director, Neuroimaging & Biomarkers Core, Easton Alzheimer Research Center
since 1997 Director, UCLA Center on Aging
since 1998 Parlow-Solomon Professor on Aging, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA
since 1998 Director, Memory and Aging Research Center, Semel Institute for Neuroscience
since 2008 Director, Geriatric Psychiatry Division, Department of Psychiatry and Semel Institute

Mag. DDr. Christiane SPIEL

Professor, Head, Department of Applied Psychology: Work, Education, Economy, Faculty of Psychology, University of Vienna

1975 Dr. phil. in History, University of Vienna
1975-1978 High School Teacher, Mathematics and History, Vienna
1976 Mag.rer.nat. (Diplom) in Mathematics, University of Vienna
1980-1989 Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, University of Vienna
1985 Dr.rer.nat. in Psychology, University of Vienna
1989-1992 Research Scientist, Max-Planck-Institute for Human Development and Education, Berlin
1990-1995 Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, University of Vienna
1995 Habilitation (venia docendi) in psychology, University of Vienna
1995-2000 Invited Visiting Professor of Applied Psychology und Methodology, Department of Psychology, University of Graz
1998-1999 Provisional Vice-Rector for personal development and higher education, University of Graz
since 2000 Chair Bildung-Psychology and Evaluation, University of Vienna
2004-2006 Funding Dean of the Faculty of Psychology, University of Vienna
since 2006 Head, Department of Applied Psychology: Work, Education, Economy, Faculty of Psychology, University of Vienna (before 2011: Department of Economic Psychology, Educational Psychology and Evaluation)

Gerfried STOCKER

Artistic Director, Ars Electronica Linz GmbH, Linz

 Media artist and musician. Graduate of the Institute for Telecommunication Engineering and Electronics in Graz. Since 1990, he has been working as an independent artist.
1991 Foundation of x-space, a team for the realization of interdisciplinary projects. In this framework numerous installations and performance projects have been carried out in the field of interaction, robotics and telecommunication. Stocker was also responsible for the concept of various radio, TV and network projects and the organization of the worldwide radio and network project Horizontal Radio in 1995.
 
 Projects and Installations have been shown among others at:
 EXPO - 92 Sevilla; Kunsthalle Bonn - 92; Biennale Venedig '93; ISEA '93 Minneapolis; Interactive Media Festival Los Angeles '94; Digital World Conference Los Angeles '94; SIGGRAPH '94 Orlando; ISEA '94 Helsinki; Dutch Electronic Art Festival - 94 Rotterdam; steirischer herbst '94, '95; Ars Electronica '95; SIGGRAPH '95, Los Angeles; ISEA '95 Montréal; Frankfurter Buchmesse '95; New York Digital Salon '95; Biennale Venedig '97, Millennium Dome London 2000, SIGGRAPH '02 San Antonio.
since 1995 Artistic director of the Ars Electronica Center and, together with Christine Schöpf, artistic codirector of the Ars Electronica Festival.

Ph.D. Ernesto VILLALBA

Researcher, Centre for Research on Lifelong Learning, Institute for the Protection and the Security of the Citizen, European Commission - Joint Research Centre, Ispra

2000-2003 European Commission Training and Mobility of Researchers Network, Problems of Educational Standardization and Transitions in a Global Environment (TMR-PRESTiGE), Institute of International Education, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
2003-2004 "Knowledge Management as a strategy of lifelong learning in small enterprises in Sweden", project financed by the Institute of International Education in cooperation with the European Social Fund Council in Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden
2003-2006 Institute of International Education, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
since 2006 Scientific/Technical Project Officer at the Center for Research on Lifelong Learning (CRELL), Unit of Econometrics and Applied Statistics (G09), Institute for the Protection and Security of the Citizen (IPSC), Directorate-General Joint Research Center (JRC), European Commission, Ispra, Italy

Mag. Dr. Lynne CHISHOLM

Professor and Head, Research Centre Education-Generation-Lifecourse, University of Innsbruck

1970-1973 BA (Hons.), Department of Sociological Studies, University of Sheffield, England
1973-1975 Graduate Teaching Fellowship and Research Fellowship, Department of Anthropology and Sociology, University of Victoria, Canada
1975 MA (by thesis: Sex, Marital Status and Suicide)
1975-1977 Research Officer, Higher Education Research Unit, University of Sheffield, England
1977 Sessional Lectureship, Department of Social Anthropology and Sociology, New University of Ulster at Coleraine
1977-1979 Fixed-term Lectureship, Department of Social Anthropology and Sociology, New University of Ulster at Coleraine
1979-1983 Lectureship at the University of Maryland European Division, Heidelberg
1983-1984 Project director at the University of London Institute of Education
1984-1991 Tenured University Lectureship in the Departments of Sociology of Education and Curriculum Studies, Institute of Education, University of London
1990 Ph.D. (Beyond Occupational Choice. A Study of Gendered Transitions), Faculty of Economics, University of London
1991-1992 Senior Research Fellow at the Graduate College  Lifecourse and Social Policy , University of Bremen, Germany
1992-1994 Fixed-term Professorship at the Institute of Education, University of Marburg
1995 Project Director, Vocational Counselling for Women Returners study commissioned by the European Commission
1996-2000 Principal Administrator at the DG Education and Culture, European Commission
1999 Habilitation (recognition of competence for full professorship in Germany and Austria), Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Wuppertal, Germany
2001-2003 Research Professorship (part-time) at the Department of Education, University of Newcastle
2003-2004 Professor (part-time) at the Department of Educational Sociology, Danish University of Education in Copenhagen
since 2004 Appointment to tenured Full Professorship for Education and Generation at the Institute of Educational Sciences, University of Innsbruck
since 2005 Director of the Institute of Educational Sciences at the University of Innsbruck
since 2006 Coordinator of the newly-founded University Research Centre Education - Generation - Life-course, University of Innsbruck
since 2009 Appointed to the Austrian Council of Universities of Applied Sciences (FHR)

Technology Forum

show timetable

27.08.2009

10:00 - 12:30Technology brunch of the Tiroler ZukunftsstiftungSocial
13:00 - 13:10Opening by the European Forum AlpbachPlenary
13:10 - 14:00Welcome statementsPlenary
14:00 - 16:00Pathways out of the crisis - new perspectives through research and innovation?Plenary
16:30 - 18:00The future of stem cell researchPlenary
20:00 - 21:30A look at the past - the secrets of our originPlenary
21:30 - 23:30Evening reception hosted by Forschung Austria in cooperation with GFF and BMVITSocial

28.08.2009

09:00 - 18:00Junior Alpbach - Science and technology for young peopleBreakout
09:00 - 15:00Technology Workshop: Trend radar of developments in societyBreakout
09:00 - 15:30Working Group 01: Can we trust in feed and food?Breakout
09:00 - 15:30Working Group 02: An international comparison of research, technology and innovation-policy (RTI) strategiesBreakout
09:00 - 15:30Working Group 03: "Sowing and harvesting" in bio(techno)logical research: From the atomic structure of proteins to the discovery of new drugs and their clinical applicationBreakout
09:00 - 15:30Working Group 04: Biomedical and pharmaceutical engineering - key technologies of the 21st centuryBreakout
09:00 - 15:30Working Group 05: Infratech - a chance in crisisBreakout
09:00 - 15:30Working Group 06: Creativity - fuel for the knowledge society?Breakout
09:00 - 15:30Working Group 07: Creative industries vs. old economy: where is the economy headed?Breakout
09:00 - 15:30Working Group 08: Universities: responsibility for the futureBreakout
09:00 - 15:30Working Group 09: Trust in the future - investment in researchBreakout
09:00 - 15:30Working Group 10: Digital Government - citizens and administration in a conflict areaBreakout
09:00 - 15:30Working Group 11: E-Mobility AustriaBreakout
09:00 - 15:00Ö1 Children's University Alpbach - Science and technology for kidsBreakout
10:00 - 15:00Special Event: Positioning Austria in the international knowledge areaBreakout
16:30 - 17:45Creativity. How kids learn - learning like kids do?Plenary
18:15 - 20:00Innovative research locations - regions in competitionPlenary

29.08.2009

09:30 - 10:45Can we trust in science? Integrity in scientific researchPlenary
10:45 - 11:30The future of the universe - perspectives for astrophysics and cosmologyPlenary
12:00 - 13:00I-Brain - the technological evolution of the brain?Plenary
13:00 - 13:15Closing statementPlenary
13:15 - 14:00Snack receptionSocial