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China: Problems of urbanisation

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Liechtenstein-Hayek-Saal
Plenary / Panel
German and English language

Speakers

Chair, International Association for China Planning; Professor, College of Design, Construction and Planning, University of Florida, Gainesville Abstract Key Note
The speed of urbanization in China is unprecedented, which has created enormous problems for both Chinese cities and rural areas to accommodate this rapid process. Cities are under tremendous pressure to accommodate immense inflow of rural populations while rural areas are losing valuable workforces and in constant decline. This has considerable consequences: urban sprawl, traffic congestion, affordable housing and increased disparity of urban and rural areas, to name a few, which demand careful planning and policies. This presentation first depicts the problems associated with the rapid urbanization, then describes the Chinese government s efforts in addressing these issues, and finally offers some comments about the effectiveness of Chinese government policies and practices in dealing with the rapid urbanization process. Specifically, three major issues will be discussed: (1) the expansion of urban development, particularly the development patterns in urban fringes, and land use policies to combat urban sprawl; (2) urban transportation problems and associated urban transportation policies; (3) the increased disparity between urban and rural areas and the coordinated urban and rural development policies and practice.
Professor and Director, Institute of Architecture and Urban Space, Tongji University, Shanghai Abstract Key Note
The urbanization in China has been undergone a complicated situation since 1960s, and then in a rapid urbanization period in 1980s and 1990s. The hard infrastructure is mainly the focus for urbanization. An ideal city is becoming the key point of urban development strategy after EXPO. The re-urbanization is a special debate upon the Chinese situation, it is the restructure and reflection of the urban space and modernization. The Chinese urbanization is relating to the quality of urban space and the urban space structure, it is relating to the development of rural area too. The urbanization model in China has to be rethought and investigated for the future sustainable development.
Professor, Institute for Transport Studies, Department of Transport Planning and Traffic Engineering, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna Abstract
Sozialisierung der Gesellschaft auf engem Raum, wirtschaftliche Optimierung der inneren und benachbarten Ressourcen und Kooperation waren die Voraussetzungen nachhaltiger urbaner Kulturen. Diese Städte waren das Ergebnis Jahrhunderte langer Lernprozesse insbesondere auch ihrer Baukultur nach menschlichem Maß. Dazu reichte die evolutionäre Ausstattung der Menschen, nicht aber, um die durch die seit dem 19. Jahrhundert entstehenden technischen Veränderungen nachhaltig in den Organismus einer Stadt zu integrieren. Die Zeit des Lernens aus Fehlern war zu kurz, die Fehlerfortpflanzung durch gut gemeinte Vorstellungen zu schnell. Die Stadtentwicklung heute vergrößert durch gut gemeinte aber selten gute Lösungen die Probleme, anstatt sie zu verkleinern. Es fehlt an Kenntnissen über das  Baumaterial einer nachhaltigen Stadt: dem und den Menschen.
Journalist and Presenter, Ö1 Journals and ORF Weltjournal, ORF - Austrian Broadcasting Corporation, Vienna Abstract
Rural development in China equals massive urbanisation. While China is developing, the authorities want to prevent even more people moving to the big centres on the East coast and the Southeast (Beijing, Shanghai, Guangdong, Shenzhen) which are already reaching the limits of their development. The urban planning focus is not only shifting to around 23 so called second-tier cities, but towards 3rd tier cities, each also with a population of around 1 million people that could grow into cities of 3 million each by 2020. By 2030, it is estimated that 70% of the Chinese population will live in cities, compared to the current 47% . The Chinese authorities are actively promoting the development of the West, which covers more than 70% of the Chinese land mass but only 28% of its population. Urban development is even believed to be a big driver of growth. It comes at a huge human and environmental cost, as urbanisation comes with forced relocations and also takes place in areas which are lacking natural resources, above all, water.
Chief Executive Officer, d. swarovski tourism services gmbh, Wattens Chair

Zhong-Ren PENG

Chair, International Association for China Planning; Professor, College of Design, Construction and Planning, University of Florida, Gainesville

1994-1995 Research Associate & Adjunct Assistant Professor, Portland State University, OR
1995-1996 Research Scientist II, Georgia Institute of Technology
1996-2001 Assistant Professor, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
2001-2005 Associate Professor, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
2003-2004 Visiting Associate Professor, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
2003-2007 Director, Center for Advanced Spatial Information Research, UWM
2005-2007 Professor, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
2007-2011 Chang Jiang Scholar, College of Transportation Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, China
2007-2010 Professor and Chair, University of Florida
since 2007 Professor, University of Florida

Ph.D. Shiling ZHENG

Professor and Director, Institute of Architecture and Urban Space, Tongji University, Shanghai

 Ph.D. in Engineering
 Laurea honoris causa of Rome University
 Since 2000 Senior Consultant for Theme Deduction of EXPO 2010 Organizing Committee
 Since 2004 Director, Expert Committee for the Preservation of Historical Areas and Architecture in Shanghai
 Since 2008 Director, Shanghai Design Centre
 Since 2009 Director, Committee for Urban Development Strategy, Shanghai Planning Commission
 
 The main design works: Nanpu Bridge (1991); Gezi High School (1995,2006); Zhu Qizhan Art Museum (1995,2007); Fuxing High School (1998); Nanjing Road Pedestrian Street, Shanghai (1999); The City Hall of Jiaxing, Zhejiang Province (2001); The Centre of Broadcasting and Television, Jiaxing City, Zhejiang Province (1999); The National Finance and Taxation Museum, Hangzhou (2004); Shanghai Public Service Centre (2010) and others.

Dipl.-Ing. Dr. Hermann KNOFLACHER

Professor, Institute for Transport Studies, Department of Transport Planning and Traffic Engineering, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna

 Bauingenieurwesen, Abschluss der Studien im konstruktiven Bereich, im Verkehrsbereich und im Wasserbau
 Mathematikstudium, Technische Universität Wien
 Geodäsiestudium, Technische Universität Wien
1963-1969 Universitätsassistent, Technische Universität Wien
1970 Gründung des Instituts Verkehrswesen, Kuratorium für Verkehrssicherheit, Beschäftigung mit Sicherheitsforschung, Verkehrsplanung und Verkehrswesen und Leitung des Institutes bis 1982
  Ende der 70er, Anfang der 80er Jahre offizieller Fachberater für den zuständigen Verkehrsminister für den Bereich des gesamten Verkehrswesens
seit 1971 Eröffnung eines eigenen Ingenieurbüros für Forschung und Beratung von Gemeinden, Ländern und Unternehmen, kontinuierliche Leitung des Ingenieurbüros bis heute
seit 1975 Leitung, Institut für Verkehrsplanung, Technische Universität Wien
seit 1985 Leitung, Institut für Straßenbau und Verkehrswesen, Technische Universität Wien
1989-2007 Leitung, Institut für Verkehrsplanung und Verkehrstechnik, Technische Universität Wien

Mag. Cornelia VOSPERNIK

Journalist and Presenter, Ö1 Journals and ORF Weltjournal, ORF - Austrian Broadcasting Corporation, Vienna

1985 Erstes Praktikum beim ORF, Slowenische Abteilung, Landesstudio Kärnten; danach Aktueller Dienst Kärnten
1986-1988 United World College of the Adriatic, Abschluss: International Baccalaureate
1989-1994 Studium Dolmetsch für Slowenisch und Italienisch, Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz, Abschluss Mag. phil
1996 Wechsel in die Zeit im Bild 1 Redaktion mit Schwerpunkten Innenpolitik und Außenpolitik
1999-2001 Leiterin Korrespondentenbüro London, danach Außenpolitik ZiB und Moderatorin diverser Sendungen (ZiB1, Weltjournal)
2007-2010 Leiterin des ORF-Büros in Peking
2011-2012 Leiterin der Nachrichten ORFeins
seit 2012 Leiterin des neu gegründeten Büros Nordosteuropa
seit 2013 Moderatorin Ö1 Journale
seit 2014 Moderatorin ORF Weltjournal

Dr. Andreas BRAUN

Chief Executive Officer, d. swarovski tourism services gmbh, Wattens

1969-1982 Verwaltungs- und Verfassungsjurist im öffentlichen Dienst
ab 1982 Leiter der Tirol Werbung, Wegbereiter für eine breite Thematisierung des Phänomens Tourismus
  Positionierung und Leitung der Swarovski Kristallwelt als eine Verschmelzung von Industrie, Tourismus und Kultur
ab 1995 Kommunikationsmanager bei der Swarovski Gruppe
2001-2010 Vertretung des Landes Tirol im Stiftungsrat des ORF
seit 2001 Geschäftsführer der d. swarovski tourism services gmbh, einer 100 %igen Tochtergesellschaft von Swarovski