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The City of the Future – Demographics and Sustainability

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Erwin-Schrödinger-Saal
Plenary / Panel
German and English language

Speakers

Professor, Mathematical Economics, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna
Country General Manager, IBM Österreich Internationale Büromaschinen Gesellschaft mbH, Vienna
Co-Founder, Design Principal and Chief Executive Officer, COOP HIMMELB(L)AU, Vienna Abstract
Wir führen gerade eine Studie durch, die das Wachstum und die Fähigkeiten unseres Gehirns mit der Realität unserer Städte vergleicht. Wir formulieren zukünftige Szenarien, die uns Möglichkeiten zukünftiger Lösungen vorschlagen. Das Gehirn versucht an Probleme nicht immer nur hierarchisch oder demokratisch heranzugehen, sondern es verwendet jeweils unterschiedliche Verfahren, um die beste Lösung zu finden. Anders formuliert: es ist flexibel. Diese Flexibilität der Systeme sollte auch Vorbild für eine neue Stadtplanung sein, denn Planung beinhaltet das Wort Ahnung.

Wenn die Bevölkerungsdichte in einer Stadt übergroß wird und wenn ihre Infrastruktur nicht mehr mit ihrem Wachstum Schritt halten kann, braucht man neue Instrumente. Die Stadtplaner müssen neue Strategien denken lernen, denn Mega Cities mit 40 Millionen Einwohnern sind nicht mehr zentral steuerbar. Wie beim Gehirn werden viele kleine unabhängige Einheiten ein großes urbanes Organ bilden und neue infrastrukturelle Synapsen sind notwendig.
Das kapitalistische System, möglichst viel Geld aus jedem Quadratzentimeter Boden zu erwirtschaften ist obsolet, wenn wir von der Zukunft der Stadt sprechen wollen: es kann nicht akzeptabel sein, wenn wenige ihre Ideen auf Kosten vieler durchsetzen.

Die Stadt ist nicht nur ein Ausdruck der Gesellschaft unserer Zeit, sondern auch ein hochexplosives politisch-soziales Medium. Man muss versuchen, neue Berechnungssysteme für die Stadtentwicklung finden, die ein neues Gleichgewicht zwischen den Dimensionen des Grüns, des Wohnens, der Arbeit, der Bildung, der Unterhaltung und der Information interpretieren. Neue Arten der Kommunikation spielen eine entscheidende Rolle.
Es gilt nicht entsprechend dem Kapital zu bauen, sondern dem folgend, was wir heute Energielinien nennen können. Der Flächenwidmungsplan wird obsolet, wenn die Morphologie der Energielinien die Baufluchtlinien ersetzen. Die Gebäude werden sich zu Sonne und Wind orientieren und dadurch eine neue Art von Straßen und Plätzen schaffen.
Wenn wir Gebäude mit der passenden Orientierung bauen, dann können sie aktive Energiezentralen werden, die mehr Energie produzieren als sie verbrauchen, und das hätte Wirkungen auf den gesamten Energiesektor und auf die Mobilität der Menschen, auf das Transportwesen insgesamt. Lösungen, die noch nicht ausreichend in Betracht gezogen werden; aber es ist wahr, der Mensch bewegt sich erst dann, und sucht erst dann einen Ausweg, wenn die Katastrophe kurz bevorsteht.
Founding Partner, Carlo Ratti Associati, architecture design office, Turin; Director, SENSEable City Laboratory, MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA Abstract
What will the cities of tomorrow be like? Back in the 90s, many scholars speculated about the ongoing digital revolution s impact on cities, and the possibility of replacing physical space with virtual space, or atoms with bits. They fantasized about the dark, sexy image of disappearing urban spaces inhabited by individuals who would lead a mostly virtual life in cyber space, engaging in digitally encoded interactions rather than face-to-face communication. Enthusiasts of digital technology pushed the envelope to the extreme by announcing the official death of history, space, time, geography, and cities, among other things. The mainstream view was that digital media and the Internet would kill cities in the same way that they had killed distance. Technology writer George Gilder proclaimed that  cities are leftover baggage from the industrial era, and concluded that  we are headed for the death of cities due to the continued growth of personal computing, telecommunications and distributed production (Peters and Gilder, 1995). At the same time, MIT Media Lab s Nicholas Negroponte wrote in Being Digital that  the post-information age will remove the limitations of geography. Digital living will include less and less dependence upon being in a specific place at a specific time, and the transmission of place itself will start to become possible (Negroponte, 1995). Yet, it became apparent in the years following the first wave of enthusiasm about digitality, that this was not the destiny of either our digitally enhanced race, or the constructed spaces and landscapes that accommodate our activities. Cities and the constructed spaces that they contain have been multiplying at an unprecedented rate, and the spatial production and consumption of mankind still fall very much within the physical realm. In fact, cities have never prospered as much as they have in the past couple of decades. For example, Asia is currently building more urban fabric than humanity has ever constructed in one era. And a particularly noteworthy moment occurred two years ago: for the first time in history, more than half the world s population-3.3 billion people-lived in urban areas Thus, despite a generalized obsession with the vision of an all-digital world, a new situation has emerged where the digital and the physical world are merging, and atoms are augmented by bits of information. The digital did not and will not kill the physical, as fantasized during the 90s. In fact, the digital and the physical are recombining, or, in the words of Hiroshi Ishii:  The bits and bricks are marrying. A layer of networked digital elements blankets our built environments, blending the information sphere and the physical space inhabited by contemporary subjects in a seamless way. What are the consequences of such transformations? This question can be addressed on several levels. In this presentation we will focus on one particular aspect that we have found most productive: the transformation of our cities into cybernetic, real-time control systems with a combined static and dynamic nature that consists of things that exist in the material sphere, and things that happen in the info-social sphere. What follows is a speculation on the factors that will most significantly contribute to the birth of this new generation of urbanity. Our cities of the near future will operate as cybernetic systems that function via sentient control mechanisms. With a plethora of possibilities in telecommunication, people who live in digitally augmented cities will benefit from real-time access to vast repositories of information. And, with the aid of new sensing and actuating technologies, all constitutive elements of urban living will be transformed into contextaware, decision-making entities. In such intelligent environments, people will be able to be incorporated as entities with transient desires, needs and preferences: hyperindividualized  users as opposed to generic  inhabitants.
Professor in Regional Economics and in Economic Geography, Faculty of Economics, VU University Amsterdam Chair

Dipl.-Ing. Dr. techn. MA Alexia FÜRNKRANZ-PRSKAWETZ

Professor, Mathematical Economics, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna

1989 Diploma, Technical Mathematics, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna
1990-1991 Fulbright Scholar, M.A. in Economics, University of Chicago
1992 Doctorate, Technical Mathematics, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna
1992-1998 Research Assistant, ÖAW - Austrian Academy of Sciences and Vienna University of Technology, Vienna
1998 Habilitation, Venia in "Population Economics and Applied Econometrics"
1997-1998 Max Kade Post-Doctorate, University of California, Berkeley
1998-2003 Head of Research Group on Population, Economy and Environment, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock
2003-2007 Vienna Institute of Demography, ÖAW - Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna
since 2003 Deputy Director, Vienna Institute of Demography, ÖAW - Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna
since 2008 Professor, Mathematical Economics, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna
since 2011 Director, Research Training, Wittgenstein Centre for Demography and Global Human Capital
2012-2014 Head, Institute of Mathematical Methods in Economics, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna
since 2013 Research Associate, IIASA - International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg
since 2015 Head, Institute of Statistics and Mathematial Methods in Economics, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna

Mag. Tatjana OPPITZ

Country General Manager, IBM Österreich Internationale Büromaschinen Gesellschaft mbH, Vienna

 Studies of Commercial Science at the Vienna University of Economics and Business, Vienna
1995-1998 Client Representative, Public Sector, IBM
1998-1999 Customer Services Executive, IBM Global Services
1999-2000 Manager Tivoli Sales, Software Group, IBM Austria
2000-2003 Manager of Software Group, IBM Austria
2003-2004 Executive Assistant to VP, SWG EMEA, IBM
2004 Director of WebSphere Business Integration Sales, EMEA, IBM
2005 Director of WebSphere Sales, Central Region, IBM
2005-2008 Director of Public Sector CEMAAS, IBM
2009-2010 General Business Enterprise Sales Executive for CEEMEA, IBM
2010 General Business Enterprise Sales Executive for CEE, IBM
since 2011 Country General Manager, IBM Austria

Dr. Wolf D. PRIX

Co-Founder, Design Principal and Chief Executive Officer, COOP HIMMELB(L)AU, Vienna

 Studierte an der Technischen Universität Wien, der Architectural Association in London und dem Southern California Institute of Architecture (SCI Arc) in Los Angeles
1968 Opening COOP HIMMELB(L)AU, Vienna
1988 Opening COOP HIMMELB(L)AU, Los Angeles
1999 Opening COOP HIMMELB(L)AU, Mexiko
1984 Adjunct Professor, Architectural Association School of Architecture, London
1990 Visiting Professor, Graduate School of Design, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA
1985-1995 Adjunct Professor, SCI-Arc - Southern Californian Institute of Architecture, Los Angeles
1999 Professor, Harvey S. Perloff Chair, Architecture & Urban Design, University of California, Los Angeles

Ph.D. Carlo RATTI

Founding Partner, Carlo Ratti Associati, architecture design office, Turin; Director, SENSEable City Laboratory, MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA

1988-1989 High school degree with science concentration at Liceo Segrè, Turin
1989-1995 MSc Degree (Diplôme) at Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées, Paris
1989-1995 MSc Degree (Laurea) cum laude in Engineering at the Politecnico di Torino,Turin
1995-1996 MPhil in Environmental Design in Architecture, University of Cambridge, UK
1998-2001 PhD in Architecture, The Martin Centre, University of Cambridge, UK
since 1996 Ingénieur de l'Ecole des Ponts et Chaussées (France), government decree 1996
since 1998 Architects Registration Board ARB, United Kingdom
since 1999 Member of the Italian Institute of Chartered Engineers
 Currently:
 Director, Senseable city laboratory, MIT, Cambridge MA
 Director, MIT Italy Program, International Science and Technology Initiatives, MIT, Cambridge MA
 Co-Founder and Consultant, Superpedestrian (urban mobility start-up), Cambridge MA
 Partner, Carlo Ratti Associati , architecture design office, Turin
2001-2002 Fulbright Senior Scholar at MIT, Tangible Media Group, Media Lab, Cambridge MA

Ph.D. Peter NIJKAMP

Professor in Regional Economics and in Economic Geography, Faculty of Economics, VU University Amsterdam

1964-1970 Econometrics and Regional Economics, Erasmus University, Rotterdam
1972 Ph.D. in Regional Economics at the Erasmus University, Rotterdam
1969-1970 Research Assistant, Econometric Institute, Erasmus University Rotterdam
1970-1973 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Economics, Erasmus University, Rotterdam
1973-1975 Lecturer, Faculty of Economics, Free University, Amsterdam
1973-1978 Lecturer, Faculty of Economics, Erasmus University, Rotterdam
1975-2002 Chairman Department of Regional Economics, Free University, Amsterdam
2005-2007 President of the EUROHORCs - European Heads of Research Councils
since 1975 Full Professor in Regional Economics and in Economic Geography, Faculty of Economics, Free University, Amsterdam
 Member of several Editorial Boards of Scientific Journals, e.g.: International Journal of Development Planning Literature, Ecological Economics, Indian Journal of Regional Science, Geographical Systems
 Guest Professorships (Selection): University of Gothenburg, Sweden; University of Osaka, Japan; Boston University, Boston, USA; National Technical University, Athens, Greece
 Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel; University of Naples, Italy
since 2002 President Governing Board Netherlands Research Council (NWO)

Technology Forum

show timetable

25.08.2011

10:00 - 12:30Technology Brunch Hosted by Tiroler ZukunftsstiftungSocial
13:00 - 13:10Welcome statementPlenary
13:10 - 13:30Opening of the Alpbach Technology Forum 2011Plenary
13:30 - 14:15Opening SpeechesPlenary
14:15 - 15:40New Ways of InnovationPlenary
16:00 - 16:50The Cancer Genome: Challenge and PromisePlenary
16:50 - 17:45CybercrimePlenary
20:00 - 21:30The City of the Future - Demographics and SustainabilityPlenary
21:30 - 23:30Career Lounge - Evening Event with a Buffet Dinner for Students, Graduate Scientists and Young Professionals Hosted by the Organisers of the Alpbach Technology ForumSocial
21:30 - 23:30Evening Reception Hosted by Forschung AustriaSocial

26.08.2011

09:00 - 18:00Junior Alpbach - Science and Technology for Young PeopleBreakout
09:00 - 15:30Working Group 01: The Future of High-Tech Production in EuropeBreakout
09:00 - 15:30Working Group 02: The Future of Urban MobilityBreakout
09:00 - 15:30Working Group 03: Pre-Commercial Procurement (PCP): An Instrument for Creating InnovationBreakout
09:00 - 15:30Working Group 04: The Efficiency of RTI InvestmentsBreakout
09:00 - 15:30Working Group 05: Urban Europe, Urban Technologies - The City in the 21st CenturyBreakout
09:00 - 15:30Working Group 06: Food Security and Distributive JusticeBreakout
09:00 - 15:30Working Group 07: Research Promotion Followed by Financial Bottleneck?Breakout
09:00 - 15:30Working Group 08: Research in the Classroom: New Ways of Learning in Natural SciencesBreakout
09:00 - 15:30Working Group 09: Simple - Functional - Trendy? Technological Solutions for Old and YoungBreakout
09:00 - 15:30Working Group 10: IT - Challenging the Present, Defining the Future!Breakout
09:00 - 15:30Working Group 11: The Digital City of TomorrowBreakout
09:00 - 15:30Working Group 12: Design Thinking and Open Innovation - The Customer is KingBreakout
09:00 - 15:00Ö1 Children's University Alpbach - Science and Technology for KidsBreakout
09:45 - 15:00Special Event: New Ways of Internationalisation? European Strategies for the Globalisation of Research and InnovationBreakout
16:00 - 17:45Natural Science Education for Future GenerationsPlenary
18:15 - 19:30Frontier Technologies - A Gateway to the Future in cooperation with the European Research CouncilPlenary

27.08.2011

09:30 - 11:00International Year of ChemistryPlenary
11:20 - 12:10The Future of the InternetPlenary
12:10 - 13:05The Physics of SuperheroesPlenary
13:05 - 13:15Closing StatementPlenary
13:15 - 14:00Snack ReceptionSocial