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India: rich and poor in the city

Plenary / Panel
German and English language


Volvo Chair Professor, TRIPP - Transportation Research and Injury Prevention Programme, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi Abstract Key Note
Most of us are struggling with the threat of global warming and attend unending seminars on sustainable development. Almost all the discussions revolve around conserving energy and finding cleaner sources for the same. The threat of crime and traffic accidents will not reduce with reductions in CO2 after the climate change meetings. Nor will the need for people to travel long distances for work, shopping and entertainment.  New Urbanism tries to deal with these issues, but it is focussed on  improving the life of rich suburban Americans. Concepts like transit oriented development are the fashion. But the evidence suggests that this on its own does not reduce travel distances, nor does it result in major shifts in transportation modal shares.

Low and middle income-people do not require a very large population to find work. If businesses are mixed with residential areas, and the lower income people allowed to live everywhere, then the less skilled persons are more likely find work closer to home. For example, a carpenter does not need specialised work place to find a job. Only highly skilled people do, and they have to opt for work locations wherever available. Indian cities at present have a very high proportion of people walking, bicycling and using public transport. This is an ideal situation to plan for a sustainable future. The problem is that most Indian citizens adopt these modes out of economic compulsion and not out of choice because it is not a pleasant or safe experience doing so. The challenge before us is to understand the needs and desires of the city dweller, the options available, and then chart a new path for our future.

In nature, stable and sustainable systems have two characteristics: all species, including humans beings, grow to maturity and then stop growth, and all have negative feedback systems to maintain homeostasis. The transportation system must have negative feedback control to provide disincentives for excess travel by individuals. At present the transportation system is driven largely by positive feedback, encouraging people to drive longer distances at higher speeds. Elevated and underground transit systems encourage long distance travel (time saving), but discourage short distance travel because of large door-to-door trip times. Flat fares instead of distance based fares reward long distance travel and penalise those taking short trips. There are very few negative feedback loops in the system to provide stability and minimum use of energy.

Unless our transport systems build in negative feedback loops against excess consumption and positive feedback for emission less travel, we are unlikely to see much progress. We will have to focus on safety, urban form, and systems providing negative feedback for  bad behaviour for any chance of survival.
MOUD Chair Professor, Civil Engineering Department & TRIPP - Transportation Research and Injury Prevention Programme, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi Abstract Key Note
Indian cities are characterized by diversities and heterogeneity in socio economic conditions. These mega cities are agglomeration of several small cities having multiple economies, in close proximity to each other. One economy serves the needs of the affluent and features modern technologies, formal markets, and outward appearance of developed countries. The other serves disadvantaged groups and is marked by traditional technologies, informal markets, and moderate to severe levels of economic and political deprivation. A majority of the population is dependent on walking, bicycling and public transport. Automobile mobility is still in the preserve of the minority. Current understanding of transportation issues in these cities has prompted  improvement in transport situation by disintegrating public spaces for uninterrupted movement of private vehicles. Improvement in road capacity in these cities has meant reducing pedestrian and bicycle facilities, removing street vendors, restricting pedestrian movements and constructing grade separated junctions.
Landuse policy can influence city density, structure, diversity and local designs to influence urban air pollution and promote sustainable transport. In response to these recommendations cities plan high rise structures, commercial centers close to metro stops, and pedestrian and bicycle facilities in residential areas. However, high density existing in slums, street vendors near the bus stops and along the roads are not considered desirable for sustainability. Three wheelers, and rickshaws are considered to create congestion. Current knowledge of city planning process and transport system gives lowest priority to pedestrians, bicyclists and rickshaws.
Architekt, Stadtplaner, Autor, Atelier Biswas, Wien/Kuala Lumpur Abstract
Why does a country of 1.3 billion people produce no Nobel Laureates, fewer patents, fewer peer reviewed scientific papers, and fewer Olympic medals than countries a fraction of its size? Why does India have so many negative records: the highest number of traffic deaths worldwide and the lowest quality of infrastructure, architecture and urban life in its declining cities, in spite of tens of millions of experts, planners and engineers and a 'booming' economy? Why is a rich man prepared to pay for marble walls rather than a solar panelled roof? The burdens of corruption and nepotism, lack of contemporary attitudes as well as deep rooted social structures hinder good quality, innovation, individual initiative and elementary social justice. What are the possible ways out of this crisis, if India wishes to realize the full potential of its people?
Stv. Generaldirektor i.R., Raiffeisen Zentralbank AG; Vorstandsmitglied, Entwicklungshilfeklub, Wien Abstract
INDIEN  50 Jahre Entwicklung:

1960: 400 Mio Einwohner, davon 100 Mio reich und 300 Mio arm
2010: 1,2 Mrd Einwohner, davon 100 Mio reich bis superreich, 500 Mio Mittelstand und 600 Mio arm, unter ¬ 2.- /Tag

Mumbay, Delhi, Chennai, Hyderabad, Bangalore zusammen Einwohnerzahl wie ganz Deutschland.

Zukunft der Städte & Dörferentwicklung:
Indien ein "Dörferland", 70 % leben in Dörfern.
Gandhi: Stärkung der Dörfer = Indien's Zukunft.
Staatliche Bemühungen zunehmend.

Initiative im Geiste Gandhi's:
VRO seit 40 Jahren; Stärkung der Dorfstruktur, letztlich Bau fester, zyklonsicherer Häuser mit und für Ärmste, meist Dalit- und

Entwicklungshilfeklub Wien: private NGO, einer der VRO Partner in Europa.
Chefin vom Dienst, Der Standard, Wien Chair

Dr. Dinesh MOHAN

Volvo Chair Professor, TRIPP - Transportation Research and Injury Prevention Programme, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi

  Responsible for the development and management of research projects of biological and biomechanical nature.
 Since 1978 Volvo Chair Professor Transportation Research and Injury Prevention Programme, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi
 Research and teaching: Transportation research (safety and pollution), human tolerance biomechanics, motor vehicle safety, road traffic injuries, childhood injuries
1975-1978 Senior Bioengineer, Research Department, Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, Washington, D.C.

Dr. Geetam TIWARI

MOUD Chair Professor, Civil Engineering Department & TRIPP - Transportation Research and Injury Prevention Programme, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi

 B Arch., University of Roorkee
 Master of Urban Planning and Policy and Ph.D. in Transport Planning and Policy, University of Illinois, Chicago
 She has extensive research experience in dealing with transportation issues of special relevance to low income countries. These include development of bus systems and road designs that would make transportation efficient and safer. She has been working in the area of traffic and transport planning focusing on pedestrians, bicycles and bus systems.
 She is advisor to Urban Age series of conferences coordinated by London School of Economics since 2005. She is editor-in-chief of the International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion.
 Currently: MOUD Chair Professor for Transport Planning, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi
2007-2010 Adlerbretska Guest Professor for sustainable urban transport, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden

DI Dr. Ramesh Kumar BISWAS

Architekt, Stadtplaner, Autor, Atelier Biswas, Wien/Kuala Lumpur

 Studium der Architektur & Städtebau, University of Delhi, Heriot-Watt University Edinburgh, Edinburgh College of Art sowie Technische Universität Graz
 Mitarbeit in Architekturbüros in Kuala Lumpur (1980-81), Helsinki (1983-84), Wien (1984-91)
 Seit 1991 selbständig in Berlin und Wien, seit 2001 Büro in Kuala Lumpur
 Bauten und Stadtplanungen in Österreich, Italien, Australien, Indien, Kolumbien, Venezuela, Malaysia
 Kurator und Gestalter von Ausstellungen in 50 Ländern, u.a. für Institute of Contemporary Arts, London; TN Probe Galerie, Tokyo; Historisches Museum der Stadt Wien; die Schallaburg; Museo del Arte Moderne d Argentina Buenos Aires; Texas Gallery Houston; Manhattan Gallery; National Museum Malaysia; Haus der Kulturen Berlin; Musée Nationale des Beaux Arts Algier; u.v.m.
 Unterricht an der TU Wien, Akademie der Bildenden Künste u. Bauhaus Dessau. Bisher Gastprofessuren an der Ecole des Ponts et Chaussées Paris; Nihon Univ. Tokyo; Univ. of Hong Kong; Univ. Of New South Wales Sydney; Temple Univ. Philadelphia; Univ. de los Andes Bogota; Univ. of Houston etc. Derzeit National University of Malaysia

Dr. Robert WYCHERA

Stv. Generaldirektor i.R., Raiffeisen Zentralbank AG; Vorstandsmitglied, Entwicklungshilfeklub, Wien

 Studium der Rechtswissenschaften
1960-1961 Gerichtsjahr
1961-1979 Genossenschaftliche Zentralbank (heute RZB), zuletzt Kreditdirektor
1979-1985 Generaldirektor der Österreichischen Volksbanken AG (ÖVAG)
1986-1991 Geschäftsführer der Raiffeisen Leasing
 Seit 1991 Im Ruhestand
 Ehrenamtliche Tätigkeit für private Entwicklungszusammenarbeit
 Vorstand im Entwicklungshilfeklub Wien: Verantwortungsbereich: Village Reconstruction Organization, Indien
1987-1991 Vorstand der RZB, seit 1988: Generaldirektor Stellvertreter
1996-2002 Im Internationalen Vorstand von Oikocredit - Ökumenische Entwicklungskreditgenossenschaft, die Kredite an "unbankable poor" im Süden vergibt
2002-2008 Vorstandsvorsitzender von Oikocredit Austria