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04: Agile und robuste Supply Chain – Volatilität im Wirtschaftsleben erfolgreich managen

Breakout / Working Group
German and English language

Produktionsnetzwerke agieren heute global und sind abhängig von weiteren Netzwerken und Firmen weltweit. Neben den positiven Auswirkungen der Globalisierung werden Unternehmen jedoch auch anfällig für Zwischenfälle wie die Finanzkrise, den nuklearen Zwischenfall in Fukushima oder politische Konflikte wie in der Ukraine. Dadurch wird die steigende Volatilität der Absatzmärkte als einer der Megatrends bezeichnet, welchen sich die Industrie stellen muss. Agile und robuste Wertschöpfungsketten können als Essenz des strategischen Managements der Zukunft gesehen werden.


Country Director Ethiopia, The World Bank, Washington, DC Abstract
Located in the Horn of Africa, Ethiopia is a land-locked country with an area of about one million km2 . The country has experienced strong economic growth over the past decade, averaging 10% per year from 2003 to 2013, compared to the regional average of 5% in Africa. Growth reflected a mix of factors, including agricultural modernization, the development of new export sectors, strong global commodity demand, and government-led development investments. On the supply side, growth was driven by an expansion of the services and agricultural sectors, while the role of the industrial sector was relatively modest. Despite this impressive growth, the country remains one of the poorest in the world. Traditional agriculture still dominates its economy, with industry accounting for just 13% of its GDP, and manufacturing only 4%.
Ethiopia aspires to become a middle income country by 2015. Given its current structure, industrial expansion and export-led growth is essential. Ethiopia's potential in light manufacturing sector is significant. The imperative is to build on the country's agricultural foundations by moving towards new tradable activities in manufacturing.
Several business environment constraints hamper private sector development and manufacturing investment in Ethiopia. Among them, importing and exporting goods is very costly compared to Ethiopia's main competitors. Ethiopia scores poorly on internationally-benchmarked indicators of logistics performance and trade facilitation. From the Djibouti port, it takes on average 44 days and $2,500 to import or export a standard size container to Addis Ababa, its capital and business center. Many factors contribute to this poor performance, including single trade corridor, low quality of transport and information technology infrastructures, insufficient dry-port and freight carrying capacity, obsolete risk management system in customs and regulatory control and cumbersome procedures, inefficient and ad hoc implementation of regulations, lack of competition and state monopoly in the operations of the logistics chain, etc.
To realize Ethiopia's potential in attracting foreign direct investment and developing its light manufacturing sector, the country has to tackle its trade logistics constraint and develop an agile and robust logistics chain between Addis and Djibouti, which carries the majority of the country trade. The key measures may include: (i) establishing a high-level inter-governmental coordination body to tackle policy and regulatory issues, (ii) reducing the number of government agencies involved in the regulation of trade logistics sector, (iii) introducing competition in the provision of multimodal logistics service by allowing private sector to operate in the logistics chain, (iv) reforming custom procedures with new technologies in tracking/tracing shipments and custom clearance, (v) expanding the physical carrying capacity of the transport corridor and dry ports. Finally, it is important to set realistic and measurable annual targets in reducing logistics costs, such as the number of days and unit cost in importing and exporting a standard container from Addis to Djibouti. Such targets can be embedded in the country's development plan, and monitored through annual survey of business engaged in trade, and benchmarked using internationally recognized comparators such as the Doing Business Indicators and Logistics Performance Index.
Director Emeritus, McKinsey & Company, Munich Abstract
Today's manufacturers are exposed to an increasingly uncertain world. Typical sources of uncertainty are cyclic demand, short-term demand volatility, mix shifts, supply disruptions, or input cost volatility such as price fluctuations of commodities. Companies have installed processes to evaluate the sources of uncertainty in their industry and business. They are aware where they need flexibility and how to manage their agility levers, be it along dimensions such as labor, asset, process, network, purchase, design, planning and scheduling.
Expanding or operating in a volatile market such as China or India, judging uncertainties gets even more complex and difficult: double-digit growth rates, rapidly changing government regulations, nontransparent buying behavior of consumers, and demand development across the geography of these huge countries exceed the challenges of established markets. Developing a business plan or deciding on investments in existing or new factories in these countries becomes a huge challenge for the top management team.
The discussion will focus on how to approach and handle such agility challenges.

Even lean plants can be affected by uncertainties like macroeconomic shocks, demand fluctuations, supplier shortages, and simple equipment malfunctions. In contrast, agile companies are achieving increased EBIT (up to 3 points) and lower fixed costs (up to 60% lower).

Our Agile Manufacturing materials outline an approach to diagnose uncertainty and build agility within the 4-walls of a plant, using tools like flexible labor arrangements and modular asset design.
Corporate Vice President, Corporate Supply Chain, Infineon Technologies AG, Neubiberg Abstract
The globalization of the world economy combined with enhanced information technologies has brought global supply chains to a new paradigm for high tech Industry in Europe. Infineon's Supply Chain network takes full benefit of globalization with own and partner factories (i.e. wafer foundries and assembly / test subcontractors) distributed around the world. In order to master fast changing economic conditions, environmental crises and political influences, an agile and robust global supply chain network is an indispensable condition. Especially in the semiconductor industry, demand volatility is a challenge: while the world economy real GDP growth spans between -3% and 4%, the semiconductor market's fluctuations span between -30% and 40%.
This phenomenon is known as the bullwhip effect: the amplification of demand along the value chain - and we as Semiconductor manufacturer are at the end of this chain. Therefore, a high degree of agility and robustness is required across all supply chain processes: Plan, Source, Make, Deliver and Return.
But what does Agility and Robustness mean? For us, Agility is the ability to change easily and adapt quickly to unplanned changes and circumstances as they occur daily e.g. by customer demand changes. Whereas Robustness is the ability of a system to endure deviations without adapting ourselves, e.g. by footprint, buffer stocks etc.
An important aspect which is gaining more and more attention recently is the agility and contingency within the Plan process. A lean and agile supply chain planning process is essential to reflect rapidly the current business situation and to explore various long term scenarios. We recently implemented an S&OP solution which simplified our Planning horizon into two dedicated planning phases. The short term planning phase enables us to react agilely to short term market (order) changes, whereas the long term planning phase helps us to be prepared (robust enough) for various business scenarios (not only singular demand forecasts).
Manufacturing agility and robustness are presumably the most common and widely discussed measures within Supply Chain Networks, both in science and industry. They span from agile approaches, such as machines with flexible operating capabilities and the ability to adapt resources to different utilization levels, to robust approaches like "have the right footprint" for your manufacturing sites, process standardization, buffer stocks or redundant capacities.
Also our range of different approaches within the Delivery and Sourcing Process is extensive. Our delivery process is a differentiating factor proven during times of crises. We are able to switch very fast from a standard transit flow to special processes and exception handling in case of needed accelerations, like Emergency Shipments to customers or re-routing delivery lanes in case of crisis. Second sourcing and supplier contract flexibility are only a few possibilities of agility and robustness to mention within the Sourcing process.
Recent supply chain disruptions like the Icelandic ash Cloud, the tsunami in Japan and the flood in Thailand taught us that an agile and robust supply chain network is needed in order to react and recover fast as well as to keep impact on customer relationships to a minimum.
In order to systematically analyze the needed level of agility and contingency of our supply chain network, we perform frequently a "Stress Test". Based on our supply chain network system constraints, extreme but possible demand scenarios are simulated and information on system sensitivity and possible consequences are derived. This helps us to increase the level of agility and contingency in our SC Network where it is needed or in other words: to be prepared for the (unpredictable) future!
Chief Executive Officer, Rail Cargo Austria AG, Vienna Abstract
Introduction of Rail Cargo Group

Rail Cargo Group is the new brand of ÖBB's (Austrian Railways) rail freight transport activities. Rail Cargo Austria AG and its 50 subsidiary companies provide rail logistic services between the North Sea, the Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

Rail Cargo Group is structured into five complementary rail freight businesses, each with its own business model serving a defined (internal and external) market: Rail Cargo Logistics organizes rail freight forwarding services in 16 countries; Rail Cargo Operator provides high-frequency intermodal long-haul shuttles connecting economic centers; Rail Cargo Carrier operates with own locomotives trains in 10 European countries; Rail Cargo Wagon is an asset manager specialized on wagon rental; and ÖBB Technische Services is a joint venture providing rolling stock maintenance services. According to our benchmark, Rail Cargo Group is the most profitable and in terms of revenues the 2nd largest rail cargo player in Europe (2013).

Agile and robust (rail) supply chains

Challenges and solutions of agile and robust supply chains:

Example 1: Germany-Turkey rail freight shuttle

Rail Cargo Group is the only logistics service provider that operates regularly rail cargo trains connecting Germany and Turkey. From Duisburg to Tekirdag - on a stretch of over 2,000 kilometers - the logistic services provider offers a robust supply chain solution despite construction works, missing interoperability concerning traffic control systems and loco driver licenses, route sections without electrification, dependency on customs clearance, & . However, an agile and robust supply chain solution is rewarded with exponentially growing demand

Example 2: Just-in-time rail delivery of automotive parts

Just-in-time rail delivery of parts and components is a must in the automotive industry. Supply chain solutions typically comprise warehouse buffers and just-in-time truck-delivery to the shop floor. Rail Cargo Group has successfully developed an environmentally friendly rail freight solution where wagons serve as moving warehouses. Rail Cargo Group operates since 11 years an automotive industry dedicated supply chain solution which comprises 2 dedicated train shuttles, each equipped with 43 customized wagons (2-ax wagons, Hbis-tt). The automotive parts are loaded in special racks, loading and unloading is taking place during the day, transport during the night. Cross border rail traction services between Austria (supplier) and Slovakia (OEM) are organized with partner carriers.

Example 3: Heavy haul coal-imports

Cost-efficient supply of coal and charcoal is crucial for Austria's steel and power industry. Increasing volatility of the global raw material prices drives the need for cross border bulk transports, quickly adapting to always changing loading stations (ports, different European coal mines).

Rail Cargo Group is an early adaptor to the changing market needs. Investments in Europe wide licensed innovative bulk material wagons and the launch of locally operating cargo railway carriers are the foundation for seamless transport chains. Starting in 2013 an annual volume of 1,4 Mio. tons of coal was transported on 7 different block-train relations between Austria and Poland. A special feature of these transports is the use of innovative wagons which have been developed in cooperation between Rail Cargo Group and Innofreight. InnoWaggon, WoodTainer and RockTainer improve the transport capacity per wagon and thus reduce transport cost. The use of specifically developed special containers offers the possibility to present the customers ideal equipment appropriate to the special requirements of the particular industry.

Requirements for success as rail logistics provider

-Traffic flow analysis
-"Product" development - identification of "carrier"/base volumes
-Access to critical resources (Locos, wagons, & )
-Multinational team
-Operational excellence
Board Member International, OBI Group Holding SE & Co. KGaA, Wermelskirchen Abstract
Cross-channel and the increased online penetration is on the way to revolutionize the entire retail industry and - with it - also retailers' typical supply chains

Unlike in the past where retailers were focusing their attention mainly on the manufacturer-retailer supply chain optimization, retailers nowadays are confronted with the challenge to establish proper supply chain solutions for the "last mile" towards customers. And this "last mile" will be a combination of (a) "classic" product availability in-store at required quantities, (b) reserve-and collect from stores, or (c) home delivery.

Retailers' future supply chains will need to be robust on the one hand in order to guarantee minimum product availability but agile or tremendously flexible on the other hand in order to cover volatile and individual demands from small single customer orders. The optimization equation will go into two directions: cost, time, and quality for inbound (supplier-retailer) as well as cost, time, and quality for outbound (retailer-customer)
Full Professor, Department of Managerial Economics, Strategy and Innovation, University of Leuven; Member, ERA Council Forum Austria; Leuven
Head, Institute of Industrial Management and Innovation Research, Graz University of Technology, Graz Chair
Research Associate, Institute of Industrial Management and Innovation Research, Graz University of Technology, Graz Coordination

Guan Zhe CHEN

Country Director Ethiopia, The World Bank, Washington, DC

1990/1991 Instructor, Harvard Extension School, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.
1992-1993 Young Professional, Asian Development Bank, Manila, Philippines
1993-1997 Project Economist, Asian Development Bank, Manila, Philippines
1997-2001 Sr. Transport Economist/Program Leader, Infrastructure Sector Unit, South Asia Region, the World Bank, Washington DC, USA
2001-2008 Sector Manager, Transport, South Asia Region, the World Bank, Washington DC, USA
2008-2011 Sector Manager, Urban, Water Supply, and Disaster Management, Latin American and Caribbean Region, the World Bank, Washington DC, USA
since 2011 Country Director for Ethiopia, Africa Region, the World Bank, based in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Dipl.-Ing. MBA Raimund DIEDERICHS

Director Emeritus, McKinsey & Company, Munich

1979 Master in Mechanical Engineering, RWTH Aachen
1979-1981 Procter & Gamble Paper Divsion: USA and Germany
1982 MBA, INSEAD Fontainebleau France
 Currently board member in several companies and lecturer at TU Graz
1982-2009 McKinsey & Company (Munich, Vienna, Beijing), Focus on automotive, assembly industry and operations

Dipl.-Ing. Dr. Kurt GRUBER

Corporate Vice President, Corporate Supply Chain, Infineon Technologies AG, Neubiberg

 With almost 30 years of semiconductor experience Kurt Gruber currently heads Infineon's Corporate Supply Chain. His department is responsible for global demand fulfillment and logistics operations for all Infineon accounts. His international team manages the internal and external production networks and drives the development of Infineon's supply chain and production strategies. Dr. Gruber also headed several departments within Infineon, including the "Center of Excellence" and held a position in "Strategic Production Management". Dr. Gruber received his PhD in Mathematics at the University of Technology Graz, Austria.


Chief Executive Officer, Rail Cargo Austria AG, Vienna

 Dr. Georg Kasperkovitz, 20 Jahre internationale Logistikerfahrung, ist seit 16. August 2012 Vorstand der RCA AG (ÖBB Güterlogistik) für Produktion & Finanzen. Der promovierte Techniker und Harvard-MBA, mit 20 Jahren internationaler Logistikerfahrung, leitet die Bereiche Produktion, Finanzen und Strategie. Er war zunächst fünf Jahre als Geschäftsführer der .A.S.A in der Slowakei tätig. Danach hat er als Berater, seit 2006 als Partner, bei McKinsey & Company, Inc. weltweit Güterbahnen und Speditionen bei Produktionsoptimierungen und Wachstumsstrategien unterstützt.

Mag., MBA Dieter MESSNER

Board Member International, OBI Group Holding SE & Co. KGaA, Wermelskirchen

 Associate Principal, McKinsey & Company Inc.
 Head of Corporate Development, OBI Group Holding SE & Co KGaA
 Managing Director International, OBI Group Holding SE & Co KGaA

Ph.D. Reinhilde VEUGELERS

Full Professor, Department of Managerial Economics, Strategy and Innovation, University of Leuven; Member, ERA Council Forum Austria; Leuven

 Visiting Academic Positions:
1990 PhD in Economics, K.U.Leuven (on FWO-Aspirant Grant), Dissertation "Scope Decisions of Multinational Enterprises"
1990 Northwestern University, The Kellogg Graduate School, Management, M.E.D.S. Department, Evanston, Illinois, U.S.A. (Winter& Spring term)
1995-1997 UCL, Louvain-la-Neuve
  Univeridad Autonoma de Barcelona, Econ. Departement (April)
  MIT, Sloan School of Management (Summer term)
1998/1999 Université de Paris I, Sorbonne
1999/2000 Universitat Pompeu Fabre, Barcelona
  Université of French Guyana, Guadeloupe (January)
  Universitat Pompeu Fabre, Barcelona (February)
  Universiteit Maastricht, Sectie Organisatie (2nd semester)
2000/2001 ECARES/ULB, Brussels (1st semester)
2001/2002 Université de Paris I, Sorbonne
2004 Stern Business School, New York University (April).
2006 BETA, Université Louis Pasteur (April)
2007/2012 Visiting Faculty GSE UPF-UAB Barcelona (Master in Innovation)
  Ecole des Mines-Telecom, Paris (September)
2012 University of Bordeaux (April);
2013 Sciences Po, PSIA, Paris (Spring)
 Current positions:
 -Full Professor (Gewoon Hoogleraar) at the K.U.Leuven, Faculty of Business and Economics, Management, Strategy and Innovation Department; Teaching: International Business Economics & Strategy (Master); Economics of Information (PhD); Economics & Management of Innovation (PhD)
 -Senior Fellow at Bruegel, Bruxelles (http://www.bruegel.org)
 -Research Fellow at CEPR (Center for Economic Policy Research, London) in Industrial Organisation and International Trade (http://www.cepr.org)
2004-2008 Economic Advisor BEPA (Bureau of Economic Policy Analysis) to JM Barroso, European Commission) on leave from KULeuven

DI Dr. techn. Christian RAMSAUER

Head, Institute of Industrial Management and Innovation Research, Graz University of Technology, Graz

 Christian Ramsauer received his PhD focusing on production management from Graz University of Technology in 1996. He spent two years conducting research on process development as a visiting scholar at Harvard Business School in Boston, Massachusetts, working with Professor Stefan H. Thomke. He was 5 years with McKinsey & Company as a management consultant, focusing on product and process development and on strategic issues, mainly with automotive and steel companies in Europe, US and Mexico. As a shareholder and CEO of a "green technology" company in Salzburg, he developed his company into a fast-growing and profitable enterprise. After working in the private equity sector in Munich he joined Graz University of Technology in 2011.


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10:00 - 12:30TechnologiebrunchSocial
13:00 - 13:10Eröffnung der Alpbacher Technologiegespräche 2014Plenary
13:10 - 14:00FTI-Politik at the CrossroadsPlenary
14:00 - 15:45Industrie 4.0 - Die nächste industrielle Revolution?Plenary
16:15 - 17:45Stanford zu Gast bei den Technologiegesprächen: Innovation und die Kultur des ScheiternsPlenary
20:00 - 21:30Wir und unser Gehirn - Neurologische Forschung at the CrossroadsPlenary
21:45 - 23:00AbendempfangSocial
21:45 - 23:00KarriereloungeSocial


09:00 - 15:00Breakout Session 01: Technology - Global Market: Österreichische Technologien für den globalen MarktBreakout
09:00 - 15:00Breakout Session 02: Technologie-Hotspots der Zukunft - Hat Europa eine Chance?Breakout
09:00 - 15:00Breakout Session 03: Herausforderung Disruptive Innovation: Strategien für eine erfolgreiche BewältigungBreakout
09:00 - 15:00Breakout Session 04: Agile und robuste Supply Chain - Volatilität im Wirtschaftsleben erfolgreich managenBreakout
09:00 - 15:00Breakout Session 05: Bioenergie - Ausweg oder Irrtum?Breakout
09:00 - 15:00Breakout Session 06: Was kostet die Zukunft der Stadt? Sozioökonomische Aspekte der Smart CityBreakout
09:00 - 15:00Breakout Session 07: Smart Energy: Herausforderungen an eine interdisziplinäre EnergiewendeBreakout
09:00 - 15:00Breakout Session 08: Wissenschaft in der Gesellschaft - Wie man Barrieren überwinden kannBreakout
09:00 - 15:00Breakout Session 09: IP-Strategien in Unternehmen: Herausforderungen für das IP-Management und die InnovationspolitikBreakout
09:00 - 15:00Breakout Session 10: Forschungsfinanzierung - Öffentlich oder privat? Neue Modelle in einer globalisierten WeltBreakout
09:00 - 15:00Breakout Session 11: Akustik-Innovationen: Trends in Industrie und AlltagBreakout
09:00 - 18:00Junior Alpbach - Wissenschaft und Technologie für junge MenschenBreakout
09:00 - 15:00Ö1 Kinderuni Alpbach - Wissenschaft und Technologie für KinderBreakout
16:00 - 16:45Digital UniversityPlenary
16:45 - 18:15Open Science - Wissen von und für Menschen in der GesellschaftPlenary
18:30 - 20:00Städte at the CrossroadsPlenary
20:00 - 22:00Urban Innovators Challenge - Stadt und ZukunftPartner


09:00 - 10:30Complexity Science - IPlenary
10:30 - 11:15Complexity Science - IIPlenary
11:45 - 13:15Innovation an der Schnittstelle von Kunst und WissenschaftPlenary
13:15 - 13:30Abschluss-Statement der Alpbacher TechnologiegesprächePlenary
13:30 - 14:00Imbiss zum Abschluss der VeranstaltungSocial