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04: Convergence and Excellence in Science

Breakout / Working Group
english language

Excellence in human potential forms the basis for top-level research in science and for innovatory forces in industry. This working group will deal with the framework conditions and the possibilities to create and to promote this potential in Austria. Based on international concepts, we will first elaborate the success factors for scientific careers as well as for successful cooperation between science and industry. In this context, the targeted promotion of scientific careers encompassing all different career opportunities will be at the centre of our discussions. Internationally renowned “good practice”-models like the career planning model of the German Research Foundation (DFG) or the UK GRAD Programme will also serve as reference points. The attractiveness of research careers goes hand in hand with a strengthening of the national knowledge base.


Associate Professor and Deputy Executive Director, Graduate School for Integrative Sciences & Engineering (NGS), National University of Singapore Abstract
Excellence in Graduate Education: Singapore Takes the Lead

The National University of Singapore Graduate School for the Integrative Sciences and Engineering (NGS) is spearheading a world-class, trans-disciplinary graduate education programme for researchers in science, engineering, and related aspects of medicine. The students enrolled in NGS were trained at the undergraduate level as Engineers (electrical, chemical, mechanical), Life Scientists (genetics, molecular biology, immunology, etc), Mathematicians, Physicists, Computational Scientists, and Medics. (NGS hopes soon to welcome exceptionally gifted students from other disciplines such as Interactive and Digital Media, and Philosophy.) The vision of NGS is consistently to produce creative, highly skilled researchers who will go on to occupy top positions in their respective fields. To realise this vision, NGS:
- Appoints from within the University, the Research Institutes (RIs), and Industry, passionate and energetic supervisors of international calibre, all of whom who are vetted using rigorous selection criteria (including: engagement with the educational philosophy and approach of NGS; international distinction in research; substantial grant income to support research; good track record of student supervision; time and willingness to teach and supervise research students, and to participate in curriculum design, student recruitment, and mentoring)
- Recruits talented, motivated students who have a completely blemish-free academic record  typically, straight As from the age of 14
- Facilitates access to world-class research facilities
- Assembled an International Advisory Board (IAB) from reputed overseas graduate schools
- Developed internationally-benchmarked, premier doctoral programmes (involving, typically: 60 hours of teaching, five skills work shops, four core modules which tackle conceptual issues at the cross-section of the relevant disciplines, and up to eight electives dedicated to the student s research focus  all of which make for a highly personalised curriculum for each and every student)

All students must graduate at the end of four years (there is no possibility of being awarded a lesser degree). Graduation is contingent on two published papers, a completed PhD, and completion all of skills workshops and courses (CAP of 3.8 minimum).
Senior Economist, Science and Technology Policy Division, Directorate for Science, Technology and Industry, OECD - Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris Abstract
Academic Research Careers in OECD countries
This presentation focuses on the results of ongoing OECD work on  Research Careers , including the results of a recent international comparative survey of the legal and regulatory conditions governing the employment and working conditions of researchers in the university and government sectors. Firstly, this presentation discusses the quantitative data on researchers in OECD countries and outlines the importance of the public sector as a main employer of researchers. Secondly, it compares the employment status of researchers in OECD countries, which range from student to employee, as well as the access to social welfare benefits for early stage researchers and the recruitment, remuneration and working conditions of researchers in the university and government research sectors. The survey findings reinforces other research that suggests that the labour market for academic is increasingly segmented depending on funding sources, employment contracts, recruitment policies and other variables. Established researchers often have access to civil servant and public employee contracts  and hence a greater degree of employment protection. Temporary staff generally works under private employment law contracts. Compensation systems for researchers in the public sector are often based on fixed wage scales negotiated through collective agreement with little room for individual bargaining, except for private law employees or temporary staff in a few countries. Nevertheless, research jobs in the public sector are well paid for established and senior researchers (relative to per capita GDP) but remuneration for early stage researchers varies significantly across countries. The academic labour market in many countries is relatively open to foreign researchers who first undertake PhD or post-doctorate training in the host country. However, for those coming with degrees from abroad there are higher barriers to entry.
Professor, Institute of Forest Engineering, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna; General Manager, OeAD - Austrian Agency for International Mobility and Cooperation in Education, Science and Research; President, Austrian Association for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Vienna Abstract
A research career at university  a worthwhile ambition?

Regardless whether the question is answered, the following is valid: Enterprises are successful by attracting talents and excellent experts and by promoting the development of junior employees. Universities on their road to autonomous and modern service enterprises have to compete not only with the labour market and within the national and international university landscape but also to play their changing role in the modern knowledge society. Without motivated and competent staff members these issues cannot be fulfilled. So the question is not, whether research careers would be a worthwhile ambition. Rather the question must be raised, what universities must do to be an attractive and competitive employer.

The main item is to define consistent career paths with perspectives for young scientists while prolonging former unstructured regulations and automatism must be avoided. Career opportunities should arise from the general framework with the prospect of an increasing European research area (relating to the Barcelona 3 % objective) and of course from the own engagement.

From the legal point of view (university act 2002) only  cornerstones can be lined out. The most important aspects are on the one hand the permanent qualification of young scientists by taking appropriate measures like permanent professional training, activities outside of university and stays abroad. On the other hand the performance principle will become more and more important. The scientific staff shall be regularly evaluated, at least once every five years. That makes only sense combined with a cascade of goal agreement, human resources development and logical career paths. For realizing adequate resources, flexible personnel structures and adjusted career models are required.

The allotment of resources is currently negotiated in connection with the performance contracts. Personnel structures are changing slowly but consistently. The temporary increase of personnel stocks could be useful to enforce the profile building processes. Concerning career paths based on existing international approaches different ideas were worked out but the running negotiations relating to the collective contract do not enhance the implementation. In fact this uncertainty is one of the main reasons why it is presently fairly difficult to communicate the attractiveness of research careers.

What from my point of view for modern and attractive research careers must generally be taken into consideration (critical factor for success) can be stated as follows:
- Career paths must become part of the personnel development system with transparent regulations (e.g. combined with the legally required evaluation processes) and clear perspectives.
- Research careers must be actively promoted by both  flexibility and mobility of the individuals and attractive programs of the university.
- The career perspectives must be independent from personal preferences. Mentoring and the integration in networks should be enforced.
- The challenges of future-oriented research careers must be met by an adequate career management which includes the issues of research and teaching but additionally also commercial services (knowledge transfer combined with spin off activities, professional training, consulting) and - what becomes more and more important - management, leadership and social competence.
- Socially acceptable exit scenario combined with training programs for activities outside the university must be available as well as cross entry models and bridging measures for re-entry; the latter is among others an important contribution for female advancement.
Geschäftsführer, Materials Center Leoben Forschung GmbH, Leoben Abstract
The experience of the Materials Center Leoben in the co-operation with industry and economy

The Materials Center Leoben (MCL) is a Competence Center in the fields of Materials Science, Materials Processing and Innovative Application of Materials.
MCL is on the one hand a materials research center but on the other also an operative and a strategic platform for the cooperation between partners from academia and business.
Austria has a strong industry, which is producing, processing and using materials. The innovative potential of many of these companies is materials based.
Materials related industry is  similar to other types of industries - facing increasingly complex and multidisciplinary R&D tasks. An increasing number of tasks cannot be solved in-house. One approach, which has been established successfully in the latest years, are research partnerships. Such partnerships were built-up between different companies but also between companies and academia.
The linking of partners from academia and from business means linking of partners from completely different worlds. Cooperation between partners from the different worlds offers a huge potential for stimulating and developing new technical solutions. However, a number of rules have to be considered in order to avoid disappointments on both sides.
The cooperation between partners from such different worlds always requires sufficient knowledge and acceptance of the constraints of the partners from the other side:

Partners from business are measured and triggered by:
- Economic success (on long term and quarterly basis)
- Technical and economic success of projects

Partners from academia are measured and triggered by:
- Number of publications in high level journals
- Teaching activities
- Number of students finishing their diploma and PhD theses
- Income from third parties

Academic partners from universities or research institutions are best performing in R&D projects, which are scientifically challenging which means in projects, which go beyond the scientific state-of-the-art.
It should be further mentioned that academic partners are mainly knowledge oriented and less solution or innovation oriented.

The experience of the MCL the last 7 years as a Kplus center has revealed that there are two different types of successful cooperations between industry and economy.
The first type of cooperations is industry driven with the goal of realising product or process innovations on the long term scale. The second type of successful cooperations are science driven.
Both types of cooperations can be extremely interesting and challenging for scientists. Solving complex scientific and technological tasks are not only of great interest for young scientists like master or PhD students but also for experienced scientists.

Success factors for cooperation between science and economy:

- Clearly communicated competence profile and available resources of each partner
Only partners with a clear and communicated competence profile and with the necessary resources are able to cooperate efficiently. Unrealistic expectations lead to disappointments and drawbacks.

- Clear communication of the needs
The partners have to communicate their needs clearly. This includes not only the technical needs but also needs regarding the communication within a running project and a repeated communication of the goals, the expected results and the time frame.

- Realistic expectations from cooperations
Partners in cooperative activities must have realistic expectations about what they will get and what they will have to deliver in which time.

- Understanding the environment the partner is living in and accepting his / her rules
It is senseless to expect unrealistic things from one of the partners, which he / she is unable to perform due to constraints from their environment. Scientific partners are thus best performing in long term fundamental knowledge oriented projects.

- Confidence
Confidence is a key factor for successful research and development cooperations. In this respect, it has to be mentioned, that the built-up of confidence normally needs years and that it is strongly related to the persons who are cooperating.

- Common agreements, which are regulating the cooperation
Agreements are necessary, which regulate common rules of the cooperation, the rights and obligations of the partners as well as financial tasks. Only special details should be regulated in project agreements. All partners involved must be aware of these regulations.

- Joint strategies
Strategic analyses jointly performed by the scientific and the industrial partners and the derivation of measures have developed into a key factor for the long-term development of both parties.

From the experience of the MCL it can be concluded that the cooperation between scientific and industrial partners has a strong stimulating effect on all involved researchers and technicians.
Cooperation between academia and industry have significantly improved the quality and the quantity of the scientific and technological output and the skills and qualification of the involved research personnel.
Forschungsleiter, Böhler Edelstahl GmbH, Kapfenberg Abstract
The incentives for an international, innovative company to cooperate with academia

- Following the vision and the strategic goal of our company superscripted with the sentence: böhler edelstahl, for the world s top performers

The R&D programme is based on our strategic corporate planning and is targeted at the extension of core competences in the sectors of tool steels, high speed steels, and technically advanced speciality materials. The work programme of BÖHLER s research and development sector concentrates on innovative product and process developments in order to be able to meet market expectations and changed customer requirements in an economically efficient way. Co operational partnerships with academia ensure decisive competitive advantages.

- To increase the potential to solve the research targets within the relevant wide application fields and production possibilities.

Böhler s product development strategy defines projects involving modified alloying compositions and suitable adjustments of production procedures, after having identified the necessary product properties on the basis of application technological parameters. It aims at increasing the share of high-quality sales obtained by new and improved products. The materials deserving special mention in this context are new heavy-duty high speed steels and tool steels produced by powder metallurgy methods (MICROCLEAN), new aluminium-alloyed tool steels, new nitrogen-alloyed pressure electro slag remelted (PESR) plastic mould steels and speciality materials, as well as vacuum melted and vacuum remelted grades (VMR) in the tool steel and speciality material sectors.

- Engaging enough people with knowledge in specific fields, following the line of basic research, application oriented basic research, development and pre standard production.

Böhler s process development work is guided by the product requirements of the above-mentioned materials and comprises mainly the fields of melting and alloying technology, casting and solidification technology, and thermo mechanical treatment of steels and speciality materials and includes also the optimization of production processes and manufacturing improvements to obtain increased process reliability.

- Establishing the belonging application oriented basic research on the relevant universities and research centers.

The practical use of computer simulation within material science became rising valence. The development and application of relevant mathematical and physical simulations for alloying technology, casting and solidification, hot forming, heat treatment and application oriented design of tools are of special interest. The implementation of these activities takes place in close cooperation with internal and external partners and customers.

- To derive benefit from European research funds and national research funds.

Application-oriented basic research is done jointly with universities and external research institutes, and within the framework of international research and development projects, preferably on the basis of subsidized cooperations. Of special relevance here are the cooperation projects with the Christian-Doppler laboratories (CDL) and the Material Center Leoben (MCL) and with partners in the European Union for Coal and Steel as well as with partners in projects subsidised from the national research funds (FFG).

- Improving the competitiveness of our company, employing young, motivated and special educated researchers, which we come to know during cooperation.
Member, Austrian Council for Research and Technology Development; Chair, ERA Council Forum Austria, Vienna Abstract
After a brief introduction to the ERC and the developments that led to its establishment, I will present the current phase of preparation for the ERC s first Call of proposals. The funding for the first year of operation of the ERC will exclusively be directed at researchers at the beginning of their scientific independence and hence will set standards for what an exemplary scientific career in Europe could entail.
Wissenschaftsattaché, Leiter des Offices of Science & Technology, Österreichische Botschaft Washington Abstract
In search of excellence  the American model

Part myth, part reality the idea that the U.S. is home to some of the world s most accomplished scientists and most outstanding scientific institutions that outperform the rest of the world resurfaces in European discussions about competitiveness in science and technology with astounding regularity.

The presentation will explore how government institutions, public and private institutions of higher education, philanthropic organizations, and think tanks collaborate to uphold a culture that shares both a basic commitment towards promoting excellence and a consensus that free markets and unmitigated competition will produce excellence. The presentation will, however, move beyond this basic premise to look behind the veneer of public perceptions at examples that show that the perceived excellence is often as much the product of skillful marketing, PR, and political maneuverings as it is the consequence of above-average research.

The presentation also aims to address the often-overlooked downsides of America s highly competitive innovation system and to thus put the perceived superiority of the American R&D policy model into perspective.

Finally, I will argue in the presentation that some of the most significant factors in America s continued success are  soft factors that are comparatively easy to emulate in other countries.
Professor and Head, Section for Science of Complex Systems, Medical University of Vienna; President, Complexity Science Hub Vienna Abstract
Success factors on the pathway to scientific excellence  personal experiences and impressions

Science is an evolutionary process: new ideas, concepts, inventions, etc. emerge from the smallest scientific units: the scientists. As soon as these ideas are publicly available, they enter into an interaction with the surrounding 'world'.
In this environment these new ideas have the chance to survive and become 'selected' among the other ideas. The process of selection is substantially governed by the environment itself. Most ideas will vanish. The paramount importance of the few surviving ideas is that they will substantially re-shape the environment - and thus the selection process for all future ideas to come. Excellent science is the small set of ideas that survives over some time and re-shapes the 'world'. If one accepts such a (restrictive) definition, the factors for scientific excellence are:
(1) rate of new ideas, 'creativity': at which rate can a scientist produce bits of potential understanding of the 'world'?
(2) critical mass: are these ideas strong enough to enter the process of selection? Are these ideas of enough relevance get noticed? Can they pass minimal quality requirements? At this step issues like reputation, distribution network, rhetoric, feeling for fashions, etc. become important.
(3) potential for selection: Selection happens if ideas fit the needs of the (selecting) environment, i.e. if they are necessary and practical to explore 'new land'.

I will shortly comment on my personal view of how a scientist can possibly influence factors (1) and (2), to get at least a tiny chance to come within reach of factor (3).
Direktor der Organisationseinheit Perspektiven der Forschung, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft e.V., Bonn Abstract
Convergence and Excellence in Science

Examples of Good Practice: Research Training Groups (Graduiertenkollegs) and Graduate Schools (Graduiertenschulen) of DFG (Abstract)

The fostering of young researchers has become an independent issue in research funding over the last decades. Especially in Europe, where the ascending countries are trying to boost their knowledge base and the established countries have realized the meaning of qualified young people to compete with the US and Japan, a variety of instruments to enhance, encourage and fund research careers have been set up on national and supranational level in recent years. Within most of the supporting systems, special attention is paid to the beginning of the career because obtaining a doctorate is at the same time the last stage of study and the first in life as a researcher, therefore a decisive phase.

During the 1980s, the annual number of doctorates increased significantly, and more time was needed to obtain a doctorate. In this period, the disadvantages of the traditional model of individual support and supervision become obvious. As a result of the debate in Germany, a concept for new forms of doctoral training was developed. The central idea, inspired by models from the Anglo-Saxon world, was the idea of a coordinated and structured format that would produce added value by combining individual skills and strengths with the benefits from interaction with colleagues and mentors and an organized environment. DFG agreed to conduct the respective funding programs. Phase 1, Research Training Groups (Graduiertenkollegs), started in 1990, Phase 2, Graduate Schools, in 2005. These instruments are connected by a common guideline but designed to be complimentary. As a consequence, there are several fundamental differences (as shown below).

Research Training Group | Graduate School
- focused on a research topic | - covering a broader field of research
- concerted research, based on division of labor | - concerted research not necessary
- small, problem-oriented group of applicants | - extensive participation from the relevant fields of research
- only few PhD students | - extensive participation of PhD students
- funding primarily for PhD students | - funding for (nearly) everything that makes the location attractive for PhD students
- speaker,  part-time coordinator | - independent professional management

Research Training Groups already had a considerable impact on the German research landscape. Reacting to the changes they induced  e.g. similar mechanisms set up by the German Länder (regional states)  they have gone through a reform procedure trying to preserve their unique selling points. Graduate Schools are now in the state of being set up by universities in a nationwide competition. Their constitution, effects and outcomes are currently under discussion.
Rektor, Montanuniversität Leoben Abstract
The destination of excellent scientists of today  academia or business?
Everybody seems to know what constitutes an excellent scientist. It must be an exceptional individual, intel-ligent, diligent, creative, productive and, almost as a consequence, renowned in the respective scientific community. Such individuals contribute to the advancement of science, the evolution of scientific knowl-edge and they frequently are a living repository of facts and experience in their field.
The institutional challenge for getting the most benefit from the internship of such persons then is, to pro-vide an environment where the aforementioned characteristics are cherished and can be brought to blos-som. In doing so there must be provided a balance between personal and intellectual independence and cooperation, and there must be offered plenty of opportunities to gain recognition within the scientific com-munity. The most critical part of this is to have available the resources for scientifically (and technically) challenging projects.
It is well recognized that the most efficient path to innovation is not a linear one  from basic to applied sci-ences and on to products, but one that brings in basic and/or applied sciences at every step of the devel-opment. This model clearly favors the multidisciplinary composition of development teams and their fast re-organisation as the progress of a project might demand. This will naturally lead to a higher transition prob-ability from academia to business (and back) for the individual scientist.
It is, however, clear that this description of the scientific process fits more appropriately for a scientific process in industry/business than in academia where longer periods of in-depth studies of a particular prob-lem prevail. The benefit of this model generally is the creation of a profound expert knowledge in a more narrow field. Depending on the personal inclinations and preferences one and the same individual might prefer an academic or an industrial setting at different points of the career.
For the young individual the best incentive to develop a career in science still is the outstanding example of an eminent senior scientist, preferably with a strong mentoring role. Young people deserve being encour-aged and they want to stand on the shoulders of titans. Let us provide the required setting.
There is plenty of room for complexity in all science careers, and there is good progress towards conver-gence of these careers in a modern society.
Rector, University of Vienna Abstract
Strategy of European Universities

It is evident that the university system in Europe needs to broaden access on a more equitable basis, that it has to reach out to increased excellence and that it must allow for more diversification within the system. Academic institutions with highly diversified profiles should provide a wide spectrum of graduate qualifications and facilitate mobility of staff and students.

Europe s universities are determined to play their full part in the creation of the European Research Area (ERA). They will strengthen their efforts to improve doctoral programmes, postdoctoral provision, research training and career possibilities, within and outside of academia. They endorse the European Charter for Researchers and the Code of Conduct for their Recruitment and regard the Charter and the Code as an expression of a framework of important general principles, especially leading to a professionalisation of the careers of young researchers and to attracting the very best to do research in Europe.

Europe s universities have to pay special attention to the doctoral education in a global context. The international education market to attract best doctoral candidates is getting increasingly competitive. Demographic changes will limit supply from Europe and U.S.; there is a growing investment in research in other regions of the world. Organizational structures and curricula have to be improved, generic skills training related to employability will be of increasing importance.
Head, Institute for Analytical Chemistry and Radio Chemistry and Director, ADSI - Austrian Drug Screening Institute, Leopold-Franzens-University Innsbruck Comment
Managing Director, Austrian Science Fund, Vienna Abstract Comment
Excellence and Human Resources

There is general agreement, that the Austrian innovation System needs more excellence, in order to catch up with leading countries in Europe and worldwide. Excellence rests on three pillars: framework conditions, competition and people. These pillars are fairly well developed and differentiated in Austria:
- expenditures for R&D have increased significantly over the last years and structural reforms (e.g. university reform) have been initiated
- FWF funds research solely on a competitive basis
- several scientists, research groups and research institutes have great international visibility and reputation.

However, there is room for improvements: in order to reach the Barcelona goal, continued effort is needed to further increase the budget for R&D expenditures. The Science System, especially the Universities, is confronted with a heavy global competition, namely a competition for the most excellent scientists. All efforts have to be invested that funding of basic and applied research is well balanced in the national innovation system.

The FWF has submitted a concept for funding of  Excellence Clusters in Scientific Research . This concept is the FWF´s contribution to the formulation of a national strategy of excellence, which is supposed to be a cornerstone of the future development of the Austrian Innovation System, according to the suggestions of the Austrian Science Council ( Strategie 2010 , RTFE, August 2005).
The Concept of Excellence Clusters addresses the three mentioned pillars for the development of excellence: It aims at improving the framework conditions for excellent research -especially at the universities  and it aims at supporting the development of research potential on a global level of competition: on the one hand by offering the opportunity to attract high-level senor scientists form abroad, on the other hand by offering excellent conditions for the education of highly qualified young scientists. The instrument of choice for this aspect is the establishment of a  Doctoral School . The central point of the Excellence Cluster concept is the integration of various, already existing elements into one unit, in order to support universities to build research units of high  critical mass and highest international visibility and to enable a new dimension of quality in basic research in Austria in scientific areas, where, due to the broadness of the field, research workload and required infrastructure, existing instruments (such as SFBs, NFNs and DKs [1]) are not sufficient anymore to attain (or maintain) a top-position in the international scientific landscape.

Cornerstones of the Excellence Cluster Concept are:
- Excellence Clusters have to build on existing excellent research potential, usually FWF-funded by priority research programmes;
- Excellence Clusters offer the opportunity to broaden the spectrum of scientific expertise by attracting senior and junior scientists form abroad;
- Excellence Clusters combine excellent research with the training of PhD Students in a well organized form, i.e. a Doctoral School;
- Excellence Clusters provide a considerably high amount of funds for financing Overhead costs, in order to support the research institutions in employing research staff and improving infrastructure;
- High Risk Research, knowledge transfer and science communication are integral components of an Excellence Cluster;
- Professional management and interim evaluations in regular intervals ensure high quality of research performance for the entire funding time of an Excellence Cluster (12 years).

The Doctoral School is the central unit of an Excellence Cluster for the development of Human Resources.

Cornerstones are
- structured training of PhD students in a well defined thematic context ( brand mark in the CV of a young scientist);
- close co-operation of students with leading scientists;
- Internationalization;
- acquisition of  generic skills .

The concept of Doctoral Schools builds on  Doctoral Colleges , which are an existing, excellent instrument for supporting education of young scientist in a relatively narrow, specific scientific context. A Doctoral School should provide a much broader basis for a well organized training of PhD students in an entire scientific field and may be formed by the combination of several, thematically connected Doctoral Colleges, providing an  Umbrella , primarily by defining standardized criteria for recruitment, training and graduation of students. The concept of Doctoral Schools should be flexible, in order to enable its application in various sectors of the National Innovation System.

[1] SFB: Special Research Programme; NFN: National Research Network; DK: Doctoral Colleges
Collaborator, Research Group Technology, Innovation and Policy Consulting, JOANNEUM RESEARCH Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, Graz Abstract Comment
Presentation of the Human Resources Programme  Doctoral Schools

Structured doctoral programmes play a key role in fostering internationally competitive centres of top-level research as well as in developing scientific excellence. As the study of Nones and Schibany (2006) indicates doctoral training is quite wide-spread in many European countries today. According to the Austrian Research and Technology Report 2006 Austria is on the path to achieve the research rate of 3 % by 2010. Although the innovative performance has significantly increased in recent years and Austria is among the top performers in the OECD there is the need to enhance the building up of excellent human capital in order to meet the employment demand of science and industry.

As the attractiveness of research careers is seen as a future key factor of success within the European scientific community, mainly implemented by the Barcelona and Lisbon process, the setting up of human resources programmes targeted toward doctoral training with an added scientific value is a trend, enhanced by the universities undergoing change. For this reason, the setting up of a new Austrian human resources programme designated as  doctoral schools is strongly recommended. Doctoral schools have in common that they show up characteristics as:
- Established for a specific time period;
- Embedded within the infrastructure of university;
- Offering a co-ordinated study and research programme run by prominent scientists;
- Interdisciplinary focus;
- Employment of doctoral candidates providing social security;
- Open for students and scientific personnel from abroad;
- Fostering mobility of national students;
- Fostering internationalization by networking with the scientific community as well as external partners like industry, public research institutions etc.
- Offering training in generic skills in order to promote a career in business, too.
Finally, the doctoral schools should offer an all-embracing training for highly qualified, early-stage researchers.
Director General for Scientific Research and International Relations, Austrian Federal Ministry of Science, Research and Economy, Vienna Chair
Abteilung VI.7 Internationalisierung der Universitäten und Fachhochschulen sowie Förderung des wissenschaftlichen Nachwuchses, Bundesministerin für Bildung, Wissenschaft und Kultur, Wien Coordination

M. Phil., M.Sc., BA Hons. Justine BURLEY

Associate Professor and Deputy Executive Director, Graduate School for Integrative Sciences & Engineering (NGS), National University of Singapore

 Post-graduate degrees in both political philosophy, and in neuroscience from the University of Oxford
1993-2002 Lecturership at the University of Oxford
1998-2002 Simon Fellowship at the University of Manchester


Senior Economist, Science and Technology Policy Division, Directorate for Science, Technology and Industry, OECD - Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris

 Mario Cervantes is senior economist/principal administrator at the OECD's Science and Technology Policy Division. In particular he is responsible for the Working Party on Innovation and Technology Policy (TIP). With more than 15 years experience in innovation policy, Mr. Cervantes has written on a range of topics from industry-science relations, human resources in S&T, technology incubators, university patenting and licensing, open innovation and globalisation and more recently on innovation for social challenges. Current activities include the study of the changing nature of innovation and the policy implications as well as work on demand-side policies for innovation.
 A graduate of Columbia University (MA - international economics), the University of California at Santa Barbara (BA economics and political science) and the Institut d' Etudes Politiques de Paris (Sciences Po), Mr. Cervantes has also studied at the Berkman Center, Harvard Law School where he obtained a certificate in internet law, and was a Sloan Fellow in public policy at Princeton's Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs. Prior to joining OECD, Mr. Cervantes worked as a researcher at the Columbia Institute for Tele-Information (C.I.T.I) at the Graduate School of Business, Columbia University, New York.

Dr. Dr. h.c. Hubert DÜRRSTEIN

Professor, Institute of Forest Engineering, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna; General Manager, OeAD - Austrian Agency for International Mobility and Cooperation in Education, Science and Research; President, Austrian Association for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Vienna

1981-1989 Wissenschaftlicher Assistent am Lehrstuhl für forstliche Arbeitswissenschaft und Verfahrenstechnik an der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München
1989-1999 Leitender Mitarbeiter und Mitinhaber (ab 1993) im Beratungsbüro DENDRON AG für Forstwesen und Raumplanung, Muntelier, Schweiz
seit 1999 Ordinarius für Forstliches Ingenieurwesen und Waldarbeit an der Universität für Bodenkultur Wien
1999-2001 Vorstand des Instituts für alpine Naturgefahren und forstliches Ingenieurwesen der Universität für Bodenkultur Wien
2000-2001 Vorsitzender des Fachsenats Wald- und Holzwissenschaften
2001-2003 Vizerektor für Ressourcen, Universität für Bodenkultur; Stellvertreter des Rektors nach UOG 1993
2003-2007 Rektor der Universität für Bodenkultur Wien
seit 2009 Geschäftsführer der OeAD-GmbH - Austrian Agency for International Cooperation in Education & Research

Dipl.-Ing. Dr. mont. Reinhold EBNER

Geschäftsführer, Materials Center Leoben Forschung GmbH, Leoben

 Studium Metallurgie an der Montanuniversität
 Assistent am Institut für Metallkunde und Werkstoffprüfung der Montanuniversität Leoben, dazwischen verschiedene Forschungsaufenthalte im Ausland
 Habilitation auf dem Gebiet Werkstoffkunde und Prüfung der Metalle
 Geschäftsführer der Materials Center Leoben Forschung GmbH

Dipl.-Ing. Hubert LENGER

Forschungsleiter, Böhler Edelstahl GmbH, Kapfenberg

1968-1973 HTBL-Kapfenberg, Fachrichtung Maschinenbau/Reifeprüfung am 28.6.73
1974-1976 Weinzetl & Hinssen GmbH mit befristeten Leasingverträgen MBB/Hamburg, Raffinierie Ingolstadt, Werft Lübeck, Siemens Ditzingen
1980-1981 Weinzetl & Hinssen GmbH, mit befristeten Leasingverträgen PHB/BMW Dingolfingen, Werft Blom & Voss/Hamburg
1984 Diplomprüfung der Studienrichtung Werkstoffwissenschaften/Montanuniversität Leoben
1985-1987 VEW/Techniker in der Abteilung "Technologie, Werkzeugs- und Schnellarbeitsstähle (mm BEG)
1991-1993 Böhler Edelstahl GmbH/Leitungsverantwortung für die Abteilungen Betriebsmetallurgie, Schmiedestreckstahl und Betriebsmetallurgie Walzlinie
seit 1994 Böhler Edelstahl GmbH/Leitungsverantwortung für den Bereich Forschung, Entwicklung, Qualitätswesen

Dr. Ph.D. Helga NOWOTNY

Member, Austrian Council for Research and Technology Development; Chair, ERA Council Forum Austria, Vienna

1959 Doctorate in Jurisprudence, University of Vienna
1969 Ph.D. in Sociology, Columbia University, New York
  Teaching and Research Positions at the Institute for Advanced Study, Vienna; King's College, Cambridge; University of Bielefeld; Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin; Ecole des Hautes Etudes et Sciences Sociales, Paris; Science Center for Social Sciences, Berlin; Collegium Budapest
1996-2002 Professor of Philosophy and Science and Technology Studies, ETH Zurich
1998-2004 Director, "Collegium Helveticum", ETH Zurich
2001-2006 Chair, EURAB - European Research Advisory Board of the European Commission
2002-2004 Director, Branco Weiss Fellowship Programme "Society in Science"
2005-2011 Chair, Scientific Advisory Board of the University of Vienna
2007-2010 Vice-President ERC - European Research Council
  Professor em., Science and Technology Studies, ETH Zurich
2010-2013 President, ERC - European Research Council

Mag. Dr. Philipp STEGER

Wissenschaftsattaché, Leiter des Offices of Science & Technology, Österreichische Botschaft Washington

1991-1996 Studium der Rechtswissenschaften (Graz, Salzburg, Neapel, Trieste)
1991-1996 zuerst Studium der Anglistik und Romanistik, dann Studium Dolmetscher und Übersetzer (Salzburg, Graz, Trieste)
1992-1995 Juristischer Mitarbeiter, Rechtsanwaltskanzlei Dr. Reinhard Steger & Partner, St. Johann i. P.
1995 Juristischer Mitarbeiter, Studio Legale Volli, Trieste
1996-1998 Forschungsaufenthalt an der Universität Krakau im Rahmen der politikwissenschaftlichen Dissertation
1998-1999 Junior Visiting Fellow, Institut für die Wissenschaften vom Menschen, Wien
1999 Promotion zum Dr. iur an der Universität Innsbruck
1999-2000 Referent im Büro des Bundesministers, Bundesministerium für Wissenschaft & Verkehr
seit 2000 Attaché für Wissenschaft & Technologie und Direktor des Office of Science & Technology, Österreichische Botschaft in den USA, Washington, D.C.
seit 2004 als Attaché für Wissenschaft & Technologie an der Österreichischen Botschaft in Ottawa, Kanada, mitakkreditiert

Mag. DDr. Stefan THURNER

Professor and Head, Section for Science of Complex Systems, Medical University of Vienna; President, Complexity Science Hub Vienna

1993 Magister rer.nat. (MS in Theoretical Physics), University of Vienna (honors)
1995 Dr.techn. (PhD in Theoretical Physics), Vienna University of Technology (honors)
1995, 1996 Guest Researcher, Columbia University, New York
1996 Postdoctoral Position, Humboldt University, Berlin
1996-1997 Research Associate, Boston University, Boston
1998-1999 Postdoctoral Position, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna
1999-2001 Tenure track position (Universitätsassistent), University of Vienna
2001 Dr.rer.soc.oec. (PhD in Financial Economics), University of Vienna (honors)
2001 Habilitation (Theoretical Physics), Vienna University of Technology
2001-2004 Associate Professor (a.o. Universitätsprofessor, tenure), University of Vienna
2004-2009 Associate Professor, Medical University Vienna
2007 Fellow, Collegium Budapest
since 2007 External Professor, Santa Fe Institute
since 2009 Full Professor for Science of Complex Systems, Medical University Vienna
since 2010 Senior Researcher, IIASA, Laxenburg
since 2015 Visiting Professor Nanyang Technologica University, Singapur
since 2015 President of the Complexity Science Hub Vienna
2017 Visiting Fellow, Magdalen College, Oxford


Direktor der Organisationseinheit Perspektiven der Forschung, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft e.V., Bonn

1989-1994 studied law at the University of Heidelberg, concentrating on Public law. philosophy of law and Anglo-American law
1994-1997 worked as a teaching assistant at Heidelberg University, doctoral thesis about the theory of state by Jean-Jacques Rousseau
1997-1999 time under articles; second state examination
1999-2001 working as an author: Biography of Jean-Jacques Rousseau
since 2001 DFG, CEOs' Staff, since 2002 Director Strategic Planning

Dipl.-Ing. Dr. techn. Wolfhard WEGSCHEIDER

Rektor, Montanuniversität Leoben

1974 Dipl.-Ing. für Technische Chemie
1976 Doktor an der Technischen Wissenschaften
1977 - 1978 Fulbright Stipendiat an der University of Denver
1980 Habilitation an der TU Graz für Analytische Chemie
1989 Assistenzprofessor an der TU Graz
1990 Visiting Scientist bei Philip Morris, Richmond, USA
seit 1994 Professor für Allgemeine und Analytische Chemie
1995-2001 Studiendekan der Montanuniversität Leoben
seit 2003 Rektor der Montanuniversität Leoben


Rector, University of Vienna

 Studies at Princeton University and the University of Vienna
1968 Promotion Dr. rer. pol.
since 1978 Full Professor of Economics, University of Vienna; several appointments as Visiting Professor (i.a. Georgetown University, USA)
since 1999 Rector of the University of Vienna (re-elected 2003 and 2007)
2000-2005 President of the Austrian Rectors' Conference (re-elected 2001 and 2004)
2001-2005 Vice-President and Member of the Board of the European University Association (EUA), Brussels-Geneva
2005-2009 President of the European University Association (EUA), Brussels-Geneva

Mag. Dr. Günther BONN

Head, Institute for Analytical Chemistry and Radio Chemistry and Director, ADSI - Austrian Drug Screening Institute, Leopold-Franzens-University Innsbruck

1960-1964 Elementary School, Innsbruck
1964-1972 High School, Innsbruck
1972 Study of Chemistry at the Leopold Franzens University of Innsbruck
1977 Teachership-Exam in Chemistry and Physics - Graduation "Master of Natural Sciences"
1977 Thesis at the Institute of Radiochemistry, University of Innsbruck "Hydrothermal Degradation of Glucose, Cellobiose and Cellulose"
1977 Contract Assistant at the Institute for Radiochemistry University of Innsbruck
1979 Graduation to "Doktor der Philosophie" summa cum laude
1983 University Assistant at the Institute for Radiochemistry, University of Innsbruck
1985 Habilitation for Analytical Chemistry
1988 Vis.Professor at Yale University, Department of Chemical Engin. New Haven, CT, USA, Prof. Csaba Horvath
1989 Assistant Professor
1991 Full Professor for Analytical Chemistry at Johannes-Kepler-University of Linz, Austria and Head at the Department of Analytical Chemistry, Johannes-Kepler-University of Linz
1994 Full Professor for Analytical Chemistry - Institute of Analytical Chemistry and Radiochemistry, Leopold-Franzens-University of Innsbruck
since 1995 Head of the Institute of Analytical Chemistry and Radiochemistry
1996-2003 Member of the FWF (Austrian Science Fund), Vienna
2000-2010 Vice President - Austrian Council for Science and Research Development, Vienna
since 2004 Member of the Board of the Medical University, Innsbruck
since 2008 Vice President of the Board of the Medical University, Innsbruck

Dr. Gerhard KRATKY

Managing Director, Austrian Science Fund, Vienna

 School and University in Vienna, Austria. PhD in Mathematical Logic at the University of Vienna.
1968-1969 Research Assistant at the University of Georgia (Computer Science), Athens, USA
1970-1971 Research Assistant at the University of Vienna (Institute for Mathematical Logic)
1971-1973 System Analyst at the Federal Ministry of Finance, Austria
1973-1980 Strategic tasks in the Planning & IT-department of one of the biggest banks in Austria (Creditanstalt-Bankverein)
1980-1994 CEO of an internationally acting Software- and Systems House (Management Data)
1995-1999 General Manager of the Austrian Liberal Party (Liberales Forum)
2000-2003 Director in the Federal Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technology, in charge of "Funding of Research and Technology"
since 2003 Secretary General of the Austrian Science Fund (FWF)

MMag. Andreas SCHIBANY

Collaborator, Research Group Technology, Innovation and Policy Consulting, JOANNEUM RESEARCH Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, Graz

1996-1999 wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter im Bereich Systemforschung des Forschungszentrums Seibersdorf
seit 1999 wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter am Institut für Technologie- und Regionalpolitik der Joanneum Research


Director General for Scientific Research and International Relations, Austrian Federal Ministry of Science, Research and Economy, Vienna

1985 Translator's diploma in English, Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz
1986 Certificate in Mass Media, Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz
1986-1987 MA in Communications, University of Illinois at Chicago, USA
1986-1987 Fulbright Grantee and Teaching Assistant, Department of Communications and Theatre, University of Illinois at Chicago, USA
1987-1993 Founding Staff Member, Director, Office for International Relations, Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz
1989 Master Degree in English/American and Interdisciplinary Studies, Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz
1990-1991 and 1993-1994 Lecturer for Media and Intercultural Issues, Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz
1993-1994 Director, Office for European Educational Co-operation, Austrian Academic Exchange Service, Vienna
1994-2001 Director, International Relations/Higher Education, Austrian Federal Ministry of Education, Science and Culture
1994-2002 Lecturer for EU Education Policy, Donau-Universität Krems
2001-2002 Deputy Director General for Higher Education, Austrian Federal Ministry of Education, Science and Culture
2003-2004 Director General for Scientific Research and International Relations, Austrian Federal Ministry of Education, Science and Culture
2005-2010 Senior Advisor for Strategy and Coordination in the field of international relations with special consideration for the interface Science - Research - Education, Austrian Federal Ministry of Science and Research
since 2010 Director General for Scientific Research and International Relations, Austrian Federal Ministry of Science, Research and Economy

Technology Forum

show timetable


10:00 - 12:00Technology Brunch sponsored by Tiroler ZukunftsstiftungSocial
11:00 - 22:00Presentation CD-Laboratory "Biomechanics in skiing"Culture
13:00 - 13:30Welcome by the OrganisersPlenary
13:30 - 14:00Welcome StatementsPlenary
14:00 - 15:00OriginsPlenary
15:30 - 17:30Competition for TalentPlenary
19:00 - 20:15Research at the Cutting EdgePlenary
20:15 - 21:30Science and Research Models and Best PracticePlenary
21:30 - 23:30Evening Reception sponsored by Alcatel AustriaSocial


09:00 - 18:00Junior AlpbachBreakout
09:00 - 15:00Working Group 01: Science and Technology in Sport: Challenge for Industry and Benefit for PeopleBreakout
09:00 - 15:00Working Group 02: Technology Transfer: the Motor for Developing LocationsBreakout
09:00 - 15:00Working Group 03: Convergence and Complexity in TechnologyBreakout
09:00 - 15:00Working Group 04: Convergence and Excellence in ScienceBreakout
09:00 - 15:00Working Group 05: Innovative Telematics Systems in Intermodal TransportBreakout
09:00 - 15:00Working Group 06: Changes in Technology and Natural Sciences - Is Our Tertiary Education System Still Up to Date?Breakout
09:00 - 15:00Working Group 07: High-performance Materials from Nature as an Opportunity for Economic GrowthBreakout
09:00 - 15:00Working Group 08: The Reassuring HabitatBreakout
09:00 - 15:00Working Group 09: Energy Security - the Case of Hydro CarbonsBreakout
16:00 - 17:15Convergence and Complexity in Science and TechnologyPlenary
17:15 - 18:00Faith and SciencePlenary
19:00 - 20:00Atom and Eve - an Alpbach MinioperaCulture
20:00 - 23:30Reception sponsored by the Province of Lower AustriaSocial


09:00 - 10:00Energy and SecurityPlenary
10:00 - 10:30Alpbach 2006 - Resumée Junior AlpbachPlenary
11:00 - 12:30Science and DemocracyPlenary
12:30 - 13:30The Universe is a Strange PlacePlenary
13:30 - 14:30Farewell Reception sponsored by Microsoft AustriaSocial