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04: Limits to Immigration and Integration

Seminar / Seminar
German and English language

The seminar has its main focus on political and regulatory aspects of international migration, on the emergence of migration regimes, and on the (sometimes unintended) effects of such regulation. The seminar also addresses the interrelation between international migration and demographic, economic, political developments of both sending and receiving societies.

Thursday, August 19, 5 p.m.

General introduction of the course

Friday, August 20, 1.30-4.30 p.m.

The history of migration regimes: citizenship and migration in the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries

This session will examine the history and emergence of migration and citizenship regimes in the Western hemisphere. The session looks at the restriction and regulation of geographic mobility in the pre-industrial Europe (feodalism, mercantilism). And it emphasizes that the following liberal period was the first and last period guaranteing the free movement of people in the Western hemispere. After describing the historical background we introduce the new regulations in the late 19th/early 20th century and describe the instruments and policies regulating and restricting international migration.

A general shift of the migration regimes can be observed since World War II. On the one hand resettlement, deportation and population exchange took place at a large scale. On the other hand the experience of fascism and World War II led to the creation of asylum as a human right to escape from persecution and to seek protection in another country. The Geneva Convention as a milestone in modern regulation regime will be presented.

Finally a typology of the European migration citizenship after 1945 will presented. The typology contains post-war expulsion and deportation, repatriation of colonial settlers, seasonal workers and guestworker regimes, family reunion, ethnic (return) migration, employment- and skills-based admission. Current migration regimes will be compared at the end of the first block.

Böcker, A., K. Groenendik, T. Havinga, P. Minderhoud, eds. 1998. Regulation of Migration: International Experiences. Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis.

Fassmann, H., R. Münz (eds.): European Migration in the Late Twentieth Century. Historical Patterns, Actual Trends and Social Implications. Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd., Aldershot/Brookfield 1994

Ohliger, R., K. Schönwälder, Ph. Triadafilopoulos (eds.): European Encounters: Migrants, Migration and European Societies since 1945, Ashgate: Aldershot, 2003.

Satuday, August 21, 1.30-4.30 p.m.

Regulation of international migration: the North American experience (US, Canada)

This session focuses on North America. The US and the Canadian migration regime will serve as examples of two traditional immigration countries; though with very different migration regimes. We will develop and discuss underlying principles as well as the components and instruments to select the structure and to limit the number of immigrants. We will also discuss possible impacts of NAFTA on migration between Mexico and the US/Canada.

Both the US and the Canadian migration regimes are based on the idea that migration is necessary and an important tool to strength the economy by attracting the talents and qualified migrants. Canada therefore tries to select permanent immigrants based on an assessment of their future economic performance (points system) whereas the US basically relies on family migration. We will discuss to what extent principles and instruments of US and Canadian migration policy could serve as a model for future European migration policy development.


Papademetriou, D. G. 2004.  The Shifting Expectations of Free Trade and Migration. In J. J. Audley, D. G. Papademetriou, S. Polaski, S Vaughan, eds., NAFTA s Promise and Reality. Lessons from Mexico for the Hemisphere. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.

Portes, A. ed. 1995. The Economic Sociology of Immigration. New York: Russell Sage.

Schuck, P., R. Münz (eds.): Paths to Inclusion. The Integration of Migrants in the United States and Germany. Providence/RI, Oxford: Berghahn Books

Sunday, August 22, 2-5 p.m.
Monday, August 23, 1.30-4.30 p.m.
Regulation of international migration: the experience of Western Europe

In contrast to the US and Canada Western Europe consists of (relatively) new immigration countries with only have some 60 years of immigration history in contrast to the traditional ones we analyzed in before. They have experienced the inflow of post-war expellees, colonial return migrants, so-called guest workers, dependent family members, asylum seekers and refugees. Current gates of entry and the legal situation of foreigners/immigrants will be described. The session looks at country specific approaches. Austria, Belgium, Germany, Hungary, Spain, Portugal and the UK will be discussed.

The EU is framing national migration and asylum policies to a growing extent. Therefore we will analyze and discuss emerging European migration regimes based on the Schengen and Dublin accords, the Treaty of Amsterdam and the decisions taken at the EU summits of Tampere (1999), Seville (2002) and Thessaloniki (2003). We will also take a look at EU Eastern enlargement, the potential for European East-West migration and the transitory regimes implemented by most  old EU member states.


European Commission: Immigration, Integration and Employment. Communication for the Commission to the Council, The European Parliament, The European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. Brussels 3. 6. 2003 (COM (2003) 336 final)

Fassmann, H. 1998. The regulation of East-West migration: political measures in Austria and Germany. In: A. Böcker, K. Groenendik, T. Havinga, P. Minderhoud, eds., Regulation of Migration: International Experiences. Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis, pp. 205-220.

Fassmann, H., R. Münz. 2002.  EU Enlargement and East-West Migration in Europe. In: F. Laczko, I. Stacher, A. Klekowski von Koppenfels, eds., New Challenges for Migration Policy in Central and Eastern Europe. Geneva: International Organization for Migration, pp. 59-86.

Münz, R., R. Ulrich. 2003. The ethnic and demographic structure of foreigner and immigrants in Germany. In: R. Alba, P. Schmidt, M. Wasmer eds. Germans or Foreigners? New York, Basingstoke: Palgrave-Macmillan, pp. 19-44.

Tuesday, August 24, 1.30-4.30 p.m.

Selected effects of migration in sending and receiving societies: general discussion

This session looks at effects of migration both for the sending and receiving countries. The focus is on demographic, economic, social and political effects. The self-selective nature of migration has some impacts on population aging in the receiving countries. We will show this demographic effect and discuss the question if migration can slow down aging (replacement migration).

In the second part of this session we will concentrate on the important question to what extent migration is substituting the domestic work force of receiving countries and which complementary effect can be expected. Another main economic effect is coming from remittances and their development effects for the sending countries. The amount of remittances, however, is linked to the income as well as to the degree of social integration of international migrants.

We will discuss different models of integration and their consequences on social structures. Finally we will look at political effects of migration both for the sending and receiving countries (political participation; reactions of voters; political power of the migrants).


Borjas, G.J. 1995. The Economic Benefits from Immigration. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 9, pp. 3-22.

Castles, St. 1995. How nation states respond to immigration and ethnic diversity. New Community, 3/95.

Harris, J.R., M.P. Todaro. 1970. Migration, Unemployment and Development, A Two-Sector Analysis. American Economic Review, 60, pp. 126-142.

Ratha, D. 2003. Workers Remittances: An Important and Stable Source of External Development Finance. In Global Development Finance 2003: Striving for Stability in Development Finance. Washington DC: World Bank.

Simon, J. 1994. Immigrants, Taxes and Welfare in the United States. Population and Development Review, 10, pp. 55-69.

UN. 2000. Replacement Migration: Is it a Solution to Declining and Ageing Popula-tions, New York: UN Population Division.

Wednsday, August 25, 1.30-4.30 p.m.

Final discussion: the future of international migration

The last session tries to draw lessons from the country cases and the theoretical discussion. We will try to understand what the challenges and opportunities of international migration will be. The last session will also include a feed-back round trying to evaluate the seminar.

Member, Advisory Committee, Financial Market Symposium, European Forum Alpbach, Vienna Chair
President of the Migration Policy Institute Chair

Dr. Rainer MÜNZ

Member, Advisory Committee, Financial Market Symposium, European Forum Alpbach, Vienna

1978 Ph.D., University of Vienna
1979-1989 Research Fellow, Austrian Academy of Sciences
1980-1998 Lecturer, Alpen-Adria-University Klagenfurt and University of Vienna
1986-1987 Visiting Professor, University of Bamberg
1986, 1989 and 1997-1998 Visiting Professor, University of California at Berkeley
1988-1989 Visiting Professor, University of Frankfurt am Main
1989-1997 Lecturer, Technical University, Vienna
1990-1992 Director, Institute of Demography, Austrian Academy of Science
1992 Visiting Professor, University of Zurich
1992-2003 Head, Department of Demography, Humboldt University, Berlin
1995, 1997 Visiting Professor, Alpen-Adria-University Klagenfurt
2000-2001 Visiting Professor, University of Vienna
2001-2002 Senior Research Fellow, Department of Mathematics of Finance, Technical University, Vienna
since 2003 Senior Fellow, HWWI - Hamburg Institute of International Economics
since 2005 Senior Researcher, Erste Group Bank AG
2008-2010 Member, Reflection Group Horizon 2020-2030, European Union
since 2009 Senior Fellow, Migration Policy Center, Washington, D.C.
since 2010 Visiting Professor, University of St. Gallen
Member of the Advisory Committee, Alpbach Financial Market Symposium, Vienna


President of the Migration Policy Institute

1976 PhD, University of Maryland
1980-1983 Executive Editor of the International Migration Review, the field's principal scholarly journal, at New York's Center for Migration Studies
1983-1988 Executive Director of Population Associates International, a research and consulting firm specializing in immigration and population issues, and a Senior Policy Advisor on immigration and refugee issues to the National Conference of the U.S. Catholic Bishops
1988-1992 Director for Immigration Policy and Research at the U.S. Department of Labor and the Chair of the Secretary of Labor's Immigration Policy Task Force
1991-1996 Chair of the Migration Committee of the Paris-based Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
1993-2001 Senior Associate at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, where he directed (1993-1998) and co-directed (1998-2001) the International Migration Policy Program
1995-1999 Co-Founder, and Chair of "Metropolis: An International Forum for Research and Policy on Migration and Cities."
since 1999 Chair Emeritus, "Metropolis"


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