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Stem cells

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Professor, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University Abstract
Embryonic stem (ES) cells proliferate rapidly while maintaining pluripotetncy, the ability to differentiate into all cell types. Human ES cells have been considered promising sources for cell transplantation therapies to various diseases and injuries, such as spinal cord injury, myocardial infarction, type I diabetes, and muscular dystrophy. Clinical application of human ES cells, however, faces difficulties regarding usage of human embryos, as well as tissue rejection following implantation. One way to circumvent these issues is to generate pluripotent stem cells directly from somatic cells.

In 2006, we demonstrated the generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from mouse embryonic or adult fibroblasts by retrovirus-mediated introduction of four factors, Oct3/4, Sox2, c-Myc, and Klf4. These iPS cells are similar to ES cells in morphology, proliferation and teratoma formation. Furthermore, we showed that iPS cells were competent for adult chimeric mice and germline transmission. More recently we showed that iPS cells can be generated without the Myc retroviruses. We also showed the generation of iPS cells from mouse hepatocytes and gastric epithelial cells. These data demonstrated that pluripotency can be induced in various somatic cells by only three or four transcription factors.

We also established iPS cells from adult human dermal fibroblasts by introducing the same four factors. Human iPS cells formed tightly packed and flat colonies. Each cell exhibited morphology similar to that of human ES cells, characterized by large nuclei and scant cytoplasm. They expressed hES cell-specific surface antigens, including SSEAs, TRAs and NANOG protein. Human iPS cells also had growth potentials, gene expression patterns, telomerase activities and epigenetic statuses similar to those in human ES cells. Human iPS cells could differentiate into three germ layers through embryoid body and in teratoma. Additionally, they differentiated directly into neurons and beating cardiomyocytes in vitro. These data demonstrated that iPS cells could be generated not only from mouse but also from human fibroblast culture with the same defined factors.
In 2008, Kyoto University has established CiRA, Center for iPS Cell Research & Application. CiRA promotes basic researches of iPS cells and aims their clinical application in understanding of disease mechanisms, drug screening, toxicology, and regenerative medicin.
Editor in Chief and Managing Director, NZZ Austria; Mentor, Alpbach Media Academy; Vienna Chair

M.D. Ph.D. Shinya YAMANAKA

Professor, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University

1981-1987 Kobe University, School of Medicine (M.D. awarded in March, 1987), Kobe, Japan
1987-1989 Resident, National Osaka Hospital, Osaka, Japan
1989-1993 Osaka City University Graduate School, Division of Medicine (Ph.D. awarded in March, 1993), Osaka, Japan
1993-1995 Postdoctoral Fellow, Gladstone Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, San Francisco, USA
1995-1996 Staff Research Investigator, Gladstone Institute of Cardiovascular Disease
1996-1999 Assistant Professor, Osaka City University, Medical School, Osaka, Japan
1999-2003 Associate Professor, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Nara, Japan
2003-2005 Professor, Nara Institute of Science and Technology
since 2004 Professor, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan
since 2007 Professor, Institute for Integrated Cell-Material Sciences (iCeMS), Kyoto University Kyoto, Japan
since 2008 Professor and Director, Center for iPS cell Research and Application (CiRA), iCeMS, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan


Editor in Chief and Managing Director, NZZ Austria; Mentor, Alpbach Media Academy; Vienna

ab 1988 Studien der Theologie, Germanistik und Klassischen Philologie an der Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz (nicht abgeschlossen)
1991-1994 Außenpolitik-Redakteur, "Kleine Zeitung"
1994 Redakteur in der Chefredaktion, "Kleine Zeitung"
1995-1997 Chef vom Dienst, "Kleine Zeitung"
1998-1999 Stellvertretender Chefredakteur, "Kleine Zeitung"
2000-2001 Chef vom Dienst, "Standard"
2002-2004 Stellvertretender Chefredakteur, "Die Presse"
2004-2012 Chefredakteur, "Die Presse"
2013/14 Leiter, Media Academy, Europäisches Forum Alpbach
seit 2015 Chefredakteur, ""

Technology Forum

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10:00 - 12:30Technology brunch hosted by Tiroler ZukunftsstiftungSocial
13:00 - 13:20Opening by the European Forum AlpbachPlenary
13:20 - 14:00Plenary sessionPlenary
14:00 - 14:30Plenary sessionPlenary
15:00 - 15:45Ethics of sciencePlenary
15:45 - 16:30Stem cellsPlenary
17:00 - 18:00Politics and science - Advice through sciencePlenary
20:00 - 21:30BionicsPlenary
21:30 - 23:30Reception hosted by Alcatel-Lucent Austria AGSocial


09:00 - 18:00Junior Alpbach - Science and technology for young peopleBreakout
09:00 - 16:00Working Group 01: From basic research to economic valueBreakout
09:00 - 16:00Working Group 02: Research integrity in scienceBreakout
09:00 - 16:00Working Group 03: The myths of life sciences and their consequencesBreakout
09:00 - 16:00Working Group 04: Aviation and the environmentBreakout
09:00 - 16:00Working Group 05: Think Tanks in AustriaBreakout
09:00 - 16:00Working Group 06: Gender mainstreaming in science and development. Perceive realities and decide visionarilyBreakout
09:00 - 16:00Working Group 07: Success factor human resources - Regions in competitionBreakout
09:00 - 16:00Working Group 08: Climate change - The future of transportBreakout
09:00 - 16:00Working Group 09: The governance of applied research: responsibilities, independence and resourcesBreakout
09:00 - 16:00Working Group 10: Digital healthcareBreakout
09:00 - 15:00Ö1 Children's University Alpbach - Science and technology for kidsBreakout
10:00 - 15:00Special Event: From the Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe to the Regional Cooperation Council - A New Momentum for the Western Balkans' Perspective in Higher Education and Research?Breakout
10:00 - 16:00Working Group 11: Energy efficiency - Recognizing opportunities, utilizing potentialsBreakout
16:30 - 17:15The frontiers of science, part IPlenary
17:15 - 18:30Global competition for global talentsPlenary
20:00 - 21:30Information and communications infrastructures - The nerve centres of modern societiesPlenary


10:00 - 10:30Science education for a science-driven societyPlenary
10:30 - 11:15The frontiers of science, part IIPlenary
11:15 - 11:45The future of the environment and agriculturePlenary
12:00 - 12:15Junior Alpbach and Ö1 Children's University Alpbach 2008Plenary
12:15 - 13:15Improbable Research and the Ig Nobel prizePlenary
13:15 - 14:00Snack reception, hosted by AVL List GmbHSocial